Your search found 475 Results

  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    Implementation of a human papillomavirus screen-and-treat model in Mwanza, Tanzania: training local healthcare workers for sustainable impact.

    Bernstein M; Hari A; Aggarwal S; Lee D; Farfel A; Patel P; Raman K; Raja S; Fenning R; Lieber M; Minteer W; Denny S; Ries M

    International Health. 2018 May 1; 10(3):197-201.

    Background: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the development of a 1-wk screening campaign and efforts towards the implementation of a sustainable system that addresses cervical cancer in Mwanza, Tanzania with a screen-and-treat model utilizing visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid (VIA) and cryotherapy. Methods: In partnership with CureCervicalCancer (CCC), a non-profit organization based in Los Angeles, CA, USA, 11 medical students at the University of California, Irvine School of Medicine established a model for sustainable human papillomavirus screening practices in Mwanza, Tanzania. This study both quantitatively and qualitatively assesses the successes and limitations of the program model. Results: During the 5-day training, a total of 614 women attended the screenings and 556 women were screened with VIA, of whom 10.6% (n=59) were VIA positive and 89.4% (n=499) were VIA negative. Of those who were VIA positive, 83.1% (n=49) received cryotherapy while 16.9% (n=10) did not due to suspicion of advanced cancer (n=7), refusal to receive cryotherapy (n=2) or pregnancy (n=1). Conclusions: The screen-and-treat model for the identification and treatment of precancerous cervical lesions is an effective public health intervention with the potential to impact women by providing the tools and education needed by local healthcare professionals. However, limitations common to resource-poor settings, such as continuity of funding, loss to follow-up and transportation costs, remain barriers to sustainability.
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  2. 2
    Peer Reviewed

    Use of HPV testing in cervical cancer screening services in Mexico, 2008-2018: a nationwide database study. Uso de la prueba de VPH para la deteccion de cancer cervical en Mexico, 2008-2018: estudio de una base de datos nacional.

    Hurtado-Salgado E; Ortiz-Panozo E; Salmeron J; Saavedra-Lara N; Kuri-Morales P; Pesqueira-Villegas E; Luna-Gordillo R; Franco EL; Lazcano-Ponce E

    Salud Publica de Mexico. 2018 Nov-Dic; 60(6):722-733.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the methods of a study aimed at evaluating high risk-HPV (hrHPV)-based screening and cervical cytology as triage compared to conventional cervical cytology as primary screening in the detection of grade 2+ cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) of Mexico. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We will use information originated from the Womens Cancer Information System of Mexico regarding cervical cancer from 2008 to 2018. The database includes cytology results, diagnostic confirmation by histopathology and/or treatment colposcopy. We will then carry out statistical analyses on approximately 15 million hrHPV. RESULTS: We will evaluate the overall performance of hrHPV-based screening as part of the NCSP and compare hrHPV-based to cytology-based screening under real-life conditions. To guarantee an unbiased comparison between hrHPV with cytology triage and conventional cytology we will use propensity score matching. CONCLUSIONS: ytology we will use propensity score matching. Conclusion. Decision makers may use our results to identify areas of opportunity for improvement in NCSP processe.
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  3. 3
    Peer Reviewed

    The cost-effectiveness of implementing HPV testing for cervical cancer screening in El Salvador.

    Campos NG; Maza M; Alfaro K; Gage JC; Castle PE; Felix JC; Masch R; Cremer M; Kim JJ

    International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 2019 Jan 31;

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost-effectiveness of HPV-based screening and management algorithms for HPV-positive women in phase 2 of the Cervical Cancer Prevention in El Salvador (CAPE) demonstration, relative to the status quo of Pap-based screening. METHODS: Data from phase 2 of the CAPE demonstration (n=8000 women) were used to inform a mathematical model of HPV infection and cervical cancer. The model was used to project the lifetime health and economic outcomes of HPV testing every 5 years (age 30-65 years), with referral to colposcopy for HPV-positive women; HPV testing every 5 years (age 30-65 years), with immediate cryotherapy for eligible HPV-positive women; and Pap testing every 2 years (age 20-65 years), with referral to colposcopy for Pap-positive women. RESULTS: Despite slight decreases in the proportion of HPV-positive women who received treatment relative to phase 1, the health impact of screening in phase 2 remained stable, reducing cancer risk by 58.5%. As in phase 1, HPV testing followed by cryotherapy for eligible HPV-positive women remained the least costly and most effective strategy (US$490 per year of life saved). CONCLUSION: HPV-based screening followed by immediate cryotherapy in all eligible women would be very cost-effective in El Salvador. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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  4. 4
    Peer Reviewed

    Preference of specimen collection methods for human papillomavirus detection for cervical cancer screening: a cross-sectional study of high-risk women in Mombasa, Kenya.

    Manguro GO; Masese LN; Mandaliya K; Graham SM; McClelland RS; Smith JS

    Reproductive Health. 2018 Dec 12; 15(1):206.

    OBJECTIVES: Self-collection of genital specimens for high-risk types of human papillomavirus (hrHPV) detection may increase cervical cancer screening uptake. We hypothesized that women would prefer self-collection to clinician-collection of genital specimens. To test this hypothesis, and women's preference between two different self-collection approaches, a total of 199 women were enrolled in a cross-sectional study in Mombasa, Kenya. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants provided self-collected specimens using the Evalyn cytobrush (Rovers) stored in a dry tube and the Viba cytobrush (Rovers) stored in wet Aptima media (Hologic). A clinician also collected cervical specimens for hrHPV testing and for cytology, and performed visual inspection using acetic acid. A post-examination questionnaire assessed preferences for the different methods of specimen collection. To test the difference in proportions for each collection method, we performed an exact binomial probability test, under the null hypothesis that women would prefer each specimen-collection method equally. RESULTS: Most women preferred clinician-collection over self-collection (68% versus 32%, p < 0.01). For self-collection, dry-self collection with the Evalyn brush was preferred over the wet-selection with the Viba brush (53% versus 27%, p < 0.01). There was no association between preference for self-collection and preference for a particular self-collection cytobrush. CONCLUSION: Further research to understand and address obstacles to self-collection of genital specimens may be needed to improve the uptake of self-collection for cervical cancer screening, especially in settings with poor access to trained healthcare providers.
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  5. 5

    Randomized controlled trial evaluating the utility of urine HPV DNA for cervical cancer screening in a Pacific Island population.

    Hernandez BY; Tareg AC; Reichhardt M; Agapito A; Zhu X; Sy A; Yuji A; Killeen J; Chan O; Buenconsejo-Lum LE

    Journal of Global Health Reports. 2018; 2

    Background: Non-invasive, self-collection sampling methods for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA detection have the potential to address logistical and cultural barriers to Pap screening, particularly in under resourced settings such as Yap state in the Federated States of Micronesia - a population with low levels of screening and high incidence of cervical cancer. Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted among adult women in Yap to compare cervical HPV DNA in self-collected urine and clinician-collected liquid cytology. Adult women aged 21-65 (n=217) were randomized by the order of sample collection. Concordance of HPV DNA, evaluated by the Roche Linear Array, was compared in paired self-collected urine and clinician-collected liquid cytology samples. The sensitivity and specificity of urine HPV DNA for prediction of cervical HPV and abnormal cytology was also evaluated. p16 in urine cytology samples was additionally assessed. Results: Overall, HPV DNA detection was significantly lower in urine than cervical samples for any HPV (27.8% and 38.3%, respectively) and high-risk HPV (15.1% and 23.8%, respectively). For paired samples, there was moderate agreement for the overall study population (Kappa=0.54, 95% confidence interval CI=0.40-0.68) and substantial agreement for women >40 years (Kappa=0.65, 95% CI=0.46-0.85). The sensitivity and specificity of urine for the detection of cervical high-risk HPV was 51.0% and 96.2%, respectively. The sensitivities of HPV DNA in urine and liquid cytology for prediction of abnormal cytology (ASCUS/LSIL/HSIL) were 47.4% (95% CI=31.0-64.2) and 57.9% (95% CI=40.8-73.7), respectively; specificities were 92.0% (95% CI=86.9%-95.5%) and 83.5% (95% CI=77.2-88.7). Urine p16 was poorly correlated with urine HPV DNA positivity. Conclusions: Urine is less sensitive but more specific than directed cervical sampling for detection of cytologic abnormalities and may have utility for screening in older populations within low-resource communities when clinically-collected samples cannot be obtained.
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  6. 6
    Peer Reviewed

    A call for the introduction of gender-neutral HPV vaccination to national immunisation programmes in Africa.

    Chido-Amajuoyi OG; Domgue JF; Obi-Jeff C; Schmeler K; Shete S

    Lancet. Global Health. 2018 Nov 30;

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  7. 7
    Peer Reviewed

    Results from a cross-sectional sexual and reproductive health study among school girls in Tanzania: high prevalence of bacterial vaginosis.

    Francis SC; Hansen CH; Irani J; Andreasen A; Baisley K; Jespers V; Crucitti T; Changalucha J; Hayes RJ; Nnko S; Watson-Jones D; Buve A

    Sexually Transmitted Infections. 2018 Dec 5; 9 p.

    Objectives: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) increases women’s susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV and may partly explain the high incidence of STI/HIV among girls and young women in East and southern Africa. The objectives of this study were to investigate the association between BV and sexual debut, to investigate other potential risk factors of BV and to estimate associations between BV and STIs. Methods: Secondary school girls in Mwanza, aged 17 and 18 years, were invited to join a cross-sectional study. Consenting participants were interviewed and samples were obtained for STI and BV testing. Factors associated with prevalent BV were analysed using multivariable logistic regression. Y-chromosome was tested as a biomarker for unprotected penile-vaginal sex. Results: Of the 386 girls who were enrolled, 163 (42%) reported having ever had penile-vaginal sex. Ninety-five (25%) girls had BV. The prevalence of BV was 33% and 19% among girls who reported or did not report having ever had penile-vaginal sex, respectively. BV was weakly associated with having ever had one sex partner (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.59;95% CI 0.93 to 2.71) and strongly associated with two or more partners (aOR = 3.67; 95% CI 1.75 to 7.72), receptive oral sex (aOR 6.38; 95% CI 1.22 to 33.4) and having prevalent human papillomavirus infection (aOR = 1.73; 95% CI 1.02 to 2.95). Of the 223 girls who reported no penile-vaginal sex, 12 (5%) tested positive for an STI and 7 (3%) tested positive for Y-chromosome. Reclassifying these positive participants as having ever had sex did not change the key results. Conclusions: Tanzanian girls attending school had a high prevalence of BV. Increasing number of sex partner was associated with BV; however, 19% of girls who reported no penile-vaginal sex had BV. This suggests that penile-vaginal sexual exposure may not be a prerequisite for BV. There was evidence of under-reporting of sexual debut.
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  8. 8
    Peer Reviewed

    Stemming the Wave of Cervical Cancer: Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Introduction in India.

    Mehrotra R; Hariprasad R; Rajaraman P; Mahajan V; Grover R; Kaur P; Swaminathan S

    Journal of Global Oncology. 2018 Sep; (4):1-4.

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  9. 9
    Peer Reviewed

    Understanding Men's Perceptions of Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cancer Screening in Kampala, Uganda.

    Moses E; Pedersen HN; Wagner EC; Sekikubo M; Money DM; Ogilvie GS; Mitchell-Foster SM

    Journal of Global Oncology. 2018 Sep; (4):1-9.

    PURPOSE: This preliminary study explores Ugandan men's knowledge and attitudes about human papillomavirus (HPV), cervical cancer, and screening. METHODS: A local physician led an education session about cervical cancer for 62 men in Kisenyi, Kampala in Uganda. Trained nurse midwives administered surveys to assess knowledge and attitudes before and after the education session. RESULTS: From the pre-education survey, only 24.6% of men had heard of HPV previously, and 59% of men had heard of cervical cancer. Posteducation, 54.5% of men believed only women could be infected with HPV and 32.7% of men believed antibiotics could cure HPV. Despite their limited knowledge, 98.2% of men stated they would support their partners to receive screening for cervical cancer, and 100% of men surveyed stated they would encourage their daughter to get the HPV vaccine if available. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer among Ugandan men is low. Even after targeted education, confusion remained about disease transmission and treatment. Ongoing education programs geared toward men and interventions to encourage spousal communication about reproductive health and shared decision making may improve awareness of cervical cancer prevention strategies.
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  10. 10
    Peer Reviewed

    Cervical Cancer Prevention in Malaysia: Knowledge and Attitude of Undergraduate Pharmacy Students Towards Human Papillomavirus Infection, Screening and Vaccination in Malaysia.

    Maharajan MK; Rajiah K; Sze Fang KN; Lui LY

    Journal of Cancer Education. 2017 Mar; 32(1):166-174.

    This study was conducted to evaluate knowledge of undergraduate pharmacy students about human papillomavirus infection and their attitude towards its prevention. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 270 undergraduate pharmacy students using a validated questionnaire to assess knowledge about human papillomavirus infection and cervical cancer and their attitudes towards human papillomavirus vaccines. Eighty-one percent of the respondents knew that human papillomavirus is a cause of cervical cancer, and 87.8 % knew that this infection is preventable. The gender of the respondents showed the strongest correlations with human papillomavirus knowledge. There were no significant correlations between the ethnic group of the respondents and their human papillomavirus-related knowledge. Higher perceptions of risk were associated with relationship status, and respondents who were in a relationship showed greater interest in vaccinating themselves; relationship status emerged as a unique predictor. The results indicated a moderately high level of knowledge and positive attitude towards human papillomavirus vaccination with few disagreements. The results of this study will help to develop and plan appropriate education campaigns for pharmacy students that aim to reduce human papillomavirus infection and, consequently, the incidence of and mortality caused by cervical cancer in Malaysia.
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  11. 11
    Peer Reviewed

    Human papillomavirus vaccine for cancer cervix prevention: Rationale & recommendations for implementation in India.

    Kaur P; Mehrotra R; Rengaswamy S; Kaur T; Hariprasad R; Mehendale SM; Rajaraman P; Rath GK; Bhatla N; Krishnan S; Nayyar A; Swaminathan S

    Indian Journal of Medical Research. 2017 Aug; 146(2):153-157.

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  12. 12
    Peer Reviewed

    Opportunities and challenges for introducing HPV testing for cervical cancer screening in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Tsu VD; Njama-Meya D; Lim J; Murray M; de Sanjose S

    Preventive Medicine. 2018 Sep; 114:205-208.

    To protect women against cervical cancer, the World Health Organization recommends that women aged 30 to 49years be screened with tests that detect human papillomavirus (HPV). If the countries that have the greatest burden of this disease-especially those in sub-Saharan Africa-are not to be left behind, we must understand the challenges they face and identify measures that can help them take full advantage now of innovations that are transforming screening services in wealthier countries. We reviewed policy documents and published literature related to Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda, and met with key personnel from government and nongovernmental organizations. National policy makers understand the value of HPV testing in terms of its superior sensitivity and the programmatic advantages that could result from using self-collected samples. However, while these countries have national cervical cancer prevention strategies, and some have national departments or units for cervical cancer prevention, screening is rare, funding scarce, and quality low. Age guidelines are not strictly followed, with scarce resources being used to screen many women younger than the recommended ages. Published evidence of the benefits of HPV testing-including performance, safety, and cost-effectiveness-must be provided to ministry of health leaders, along with information on anticipated costs for training personnel, purchasing supplies, providing facility space, and maintaining test kits. Despite the obstacles, a joint effort on the part of global and national stakeholders to introduce molecular screening methods can bring better protection to the women who need it most. Copyright (c) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  13. 13
    Peer Reviewed

    A Study on Cervical Cancer Screening Using Pap Smear Test and Clinical Correlation.

    Sachan PL; Singh M; Patel ML; Sachan R

    Asia - Pacific Journal of Oncology Nursing. 2018 Jul-Sep; 5(3):337-341.

    Objective: The objective of the study is to evaluate the use of the Pap smear screening method for detection of precancerous lesions. Methods: All women who visited the outpatient gynecology clinic of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at King Georges Medical University, Lucknow, UP, India, over 1 year for different clinical problems were recruited for the study. A total of 1650 women who were sexually active and over 21 years of age were enrolled in the study. A clinical examination, an examination per speculum, and a vaginal examination were performed and a history taken for all women. A Pap smear was used for all women to screen for cervical cancer. The smear was obtained using an Ayre spatula and spread over a marked glass slide, which was placed in 95% ethyl alcohol and sent to the Department of Pathology for cytopathological examination. All data were recorded using a predetermined pro forma. Women who had visible malignant cervical lesions were excluded from the study. Results: Most women were in the age range of 30-50 years and multiparous. Vaginal discharge was the most common complaint, occurring in 36.96% of the women. An irregular menstrual cycle was the complaint of 12.78% and abdominal pain of 25.63% of women, while 15.15% were asymptomatic. The Pap smear test of 93.57% of the women was adequately taken, while 6.42% of the individuals had an inadequate sample. The test was negative for malignancy in 48.84%, and 42.66% had infection or inflammation. Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) were detected in 2.90%, 5.09%, and 0.48%, respectively. Women with Pap tests positive for ASCUS, LSIL, and HSIL underwent a colposcopy and guided biopsy. Conclusions: Women with an abnormal Pap test should undergo a colposcopy, and those with abnormal colposcopy findings should be advised to undergo a biopsy. A Pap smear is simple, noninvasive, cost-effective, and easy to perform for detection of precancerous lesions in a gynecological patient.
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  14. 14
    Peer Reviewed

    Awareness and Beliefs About Cervical Cancer, the HPV Vaccine, and Cervical Cancer Screening Among Ghanaian Women with Diverse Education Levels.

    Williams MS; Kenu E; Adanu A; Yalley RA; Lawoe NK; Dotse AS; Adu RF; Fontaine K

    Journal of Cancer Education. 2018 Jul 4;

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women in Ghana. Cost-effective tools for the primary and secondary prevention of cervical cancer, such as the Pap test, the HPV DNA test, and the HPV vaccine, are available in hospitals and clinics throughout Ghana. However, participation in cervical cancer prevention behaviors is low among Ghanaian women. Our objective was to determine if there were significant differences in cervical cancer awareness and stigmatizing beliefs about women with cervical cancer between Ghanaian women of different education levels. We surveyed 288 Ghanaian women who were at least 18 years old. Data on the participants' demographic characteristics, awareness of cervical cancer, cervical cancer screening, and the HPV vaccine, beliefs about cervical cancer screening, and stigmatizing beliefs about women with cervical cancer was collected. Chi-square tests for independence and Fisher's exact test of independence were preformed to determine if education level was associated with those factors. Participation in cervical cancer screening and uptake of the HPV vaccine was significantly lower among women with less than a senior high school education. Awareness about cervical cancer, cervical cancer screening, and the HPV vaccine was lower among women with less education. Women with lower levels of education were more likely to agree with the negative statements about cervical cancer screening and stigmatizing beliefs about women with cervical cancer. Cervical cancer education interventions that are tailored for Ghanaian women with different educational levels are needed to increase awareness of and participation in cervical cancer prevention strategies.
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  15. 15
    Peer Reviewed

    Is It Time to Move Beyond Visual Inspection With Acetic Acid for Cervical Cancer Screening?

    Silkensen SL; Schiffman M; Sahasrabuddhe V; Flanigan JS

    Global Health, Science and Practice. 2018 Jun 27; 6(2):242-246.

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  16. 16
    Peer Reviewed

    Ethical issues related to human papillomavirus vaccination programs: An example from Bangladesh.

    Salwa M; Abdullah Al-Munim T

    BMC Medical Ethics. 2018; 19

    Background: Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine was introduced in Bangladesh through the arrangement of a demonstration project in Gazipur district in 2016, targeting grade five female students and non-school going girls (age range 10-12 years). HPV vaccination is expected to be eventually included in the nationwide immunization program if the demonstration project is successful. However, introduction and implementation of such a vaccination program raises various ethical concerns. This review paper illustrates a step by step assessment of the ethical concerns surrounding the HPV vaccination implementation in Bangladesh considering specific elements in administering and conducting the program as well as the intended results. Policy-makers, vaccine implementers, vaccine recipients, and an ethics specialist in Bangladesh were interviewed. Electronic database and websites have also been reviewed for relevant published literature and government statements. Main body of the abstract: This program imparted inadequate knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer to the recipients and participants. There was lack of autonomous and informed choice of the girls and their parents about taking the vaccine. The program did not have any follow-up plan for the adverse effects in the long run. The impact of a female-only strategy in the larger societal context was overlooked. There was lack of awareness among the implementers about safeguarding the ethical issues pertaining to HPV vaccination. Conclusion: Adolescent health education imparted in the scope of the vaccination program should contain adequate information about HPV, its mode of transmission, risk factors along with the importance of secondary prevention despite primary prevention. Adolescent boys should be given HPV related health education as well. The right of making informed choice should be appreciated and respected. More ethical discussion and debate should be done among the public health professionals of Bangladesh in order to increase awareness about ethical issues related to human health. © 2018 The Author(s).
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  17. 17
    Peer Reviewed

    Acceptability of self-sampling and human papillomavirus testing among non-attenders of cervical cancer screening programs in El Salvador.

    Maza M; Melendez M; Masch R; Alfaro K; Chacon A; Gonzalez E; Soler M; Conzuelo-Rodriguez G; Gage JC; Alonzo TA; Castle PE; Felix JC; Cremer M

    Preventive Medicine. 2018 Sep; 114:149-155.

    In a cross-sectional study carried out in El Salvador between February 2016 and July 2017, self-sampling and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing was found to be highly acceptable among 2019 women who had not attended a cervical cancer screening in at least 3years. Within this population, HPV positivity rates differed according to age, marital status, number of children, and lifetime sexual partners. The proportion of women who tested HPV positive or who were diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2) or more severe diagnoses (CIN2+) was similar to the general population of the area. Among the reasons for failing to participate in previous screening programs, non-attending women described logistic concerns, but also erroneous beliefs regarding HPV and cervical cancer, misconceptions regarding the screening procedure, discomfort with male providers, and confidentiality fears. The aim of this study was to identify opportunities and challenges that emerged from the use of self-sampling and HPV testing as part of a public cervical cancer control effort in a low-resource setting. Copyright (c) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  18. 18
    Peer Reviewed

    High-risk papillomavirus infection among women living with human Immunodeficiency virus: Brazilian multicentric study.

    Miranda AE; Silveira MF; Travassos AG; Tenorio T; Val ICC; Lannoy L; Mattos Junior HS; Carvalho NS

    Journal of Medical Virology. 2017 Dec; 89(12):2217-2223.

    Cervical cancer is an important health issue in Latin America. Although HPV infections can have spontaneous clearance, persistence of high-risk (HR) HPV is a risk factor for cervical cancer among women and it is even higher in HIV-infected women. To determine the prevalence of HR-HPV and risk factors among HIV-infected women attending reference services for HIV/AIDS in different regions of Brazil. Cross-sectional study conducted among HIV-infected women attended at referral care centers for HIV/AIDS in nine states of Brazil. Women from 18 to 49 years that accept to participate and were not pregnant at the time of the approach were recruited for the study. The HPV screening was realized using qPCR in closed system, in vitro Diagnostic, COBAS((R)) -HPV Roche. The cytology results were available by the Bethesda System. A total of 802(89.1%) from the selected women agreed to participate in the study. Median age was 39(Inter quartile range [IQR34-46]) years and median education was 9(IQR6-11) years. General prevalence of HR-HPV was 28.4%(228/802). HPV-16 prevalence rate was 8.1%(65/802), HPV-18 was 3.7%(30/802) and other types of HR-HPV were 23.6% (189/802). Risk factors for HR-HPV infection in the multivariate logistic regression analysis were: age ranging from 18 to 34 years (OR = 1.43[95%CI:1.18-1.75]), illicit drugs use (OR = 1.61[95%CI:1.10-2.42]) and abnormal cervical cytology (OR = 1.56[95%CI:1.34-1.81]). Results showed a prevalence rate of 28.4% of HR-HPV infection in women living with HIV in Brazil. These infections were significantly associated with having less than 35 years old, illicit drug use and abnormal cervical cytology.
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  19. 19
    Peer Reviewed

    Cost of HPV screening at community health campaigns (CHCs) and health clinics in rural Kenya.

    Shen J; Olwanda E; Kahn JG; Huchko MJ

    BMC Health Services Research. 2018 May 25; 18(1):378.

    BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the most frequent neoplasm among Kenyan women, with 4800 diagnoses and 2400 deaths per year. One reason is an extremely low rate of screening through pap smears, at 13.8% in 2014. Knowing the costs of screening will help planners and policymakers design, implement, and scale programs. METHODS: We conducted HPV-based cervical cancer screening via self-collection in 12 communities in rural Migori County, Kenya. Six communities were randomized to community health campaigns (CHCs), and six to screening at government clinics. All HPV-positive women were referred for cryotherapy at Migori County Hospital. We prospectively estimated direct costs from the health system perspective, using micro-costing methods. Cost data were extracted from expenditure records, staff interviews, and time and motion logs. Total costs per woman screening included three activities: outreach, HPV-based screening, and notification. Types of inputs include personnel, recurrent goods, capital goods, and services. We costed potential changes to implementation for scaling. RESULTS: From January to September 2016, 2899 women were screened in CHCs and 2042 in clinics. Each CHC lasted for 30 working days, 10 days each for outreach, screening, and notification. The mean cost per woman screened was $25.00 for CHCs [median: $25.09; Range: $22.06-30.21] and $29.56 for clinics [$28.90; $25.27-37.08]. Clinics had higher costs than CHCs for personnel ($14.27 vs. $11.26) and capital ($5.55 vs. $2.80). Screening costs were higher for clinics at $21.84, compared to $17.48 for CHCs. In contrast, CHCs had higher outreach costs ($3.34 vs. $0.17). After modeling a reduction in staffing, clinic per-screening costs ($25.69) were approximately equivalent to CHCs. CONCLUSIONS: HPV-based cervical cancer screening through community health campaigns achieved lower costs per woman screened, compared to screening at clinics. Periodic high-volume CHCs appear to be a viable low-cost strategy for implementing cervical cancer screening.
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  20. 20
    Peer Reviewed

    Knowledge, Perception, and Acceptance of HPV Vaccination and Screening for Cervical Cancer among Women in Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia

    Endarti D; Satibi S; Kristina SA; Farida MA; Rahmawanti Y; Andriani T

    Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2018 Apr 27; 19(4):1105-1111.

    Objective: To determine knowledge, perception, and acceptance related to cervical cancer, HPV vaccination and screening for cervical cancer among Indonesian women, particularly in Yogyakarta province. Methods: A convenience sample of 392 women consists of 192 young women, 100 mothers of girls aged 12 - 15 years, and 100 adult women in Yogyakarta province, Indonesia was participated in this study. A self-administered paper-based questionnaire was used to determine demographics characteristics of respondents, as well as their knowledge - perception - acceptance related to cervical cancer, HPV vaccination, and screening for cervical cancer. Data collection were conducted during December 2013 to March 2014. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze description of demographics characteristics, knowledge, perception, and acceptance; while crosstab analysis using Chi-Square was used to analyze the relationship between demographics characteristics versus knowledge, perception, and acceptance. Results: This study found that knowledge and perception regarding cervical cancer, HPV vaccination, and screening for cervical cancer among women in Indonesia, particularly in Yogyakarta Province were still insufficient, however the acceptance was good. Among female young women, 64% had good knowledge, 62% had positive perception of cervical cancer and HPV vaccination, and 92% tended to accept HPV vaccination. Among mothers of girls aged 12 - 15 years, 44% had good knowledge, 46% had positive perception of cervical cancer and HPV vaccination, and 91% tended to accept HPV vaccination for their daughters. Among adult women, 68% had good knowledge, 57% had positive perception of cervical cancer and screening for cervical cancer, and 90% tended to accept cervical cancer screening. In general, demographics characteristics of having experience and exposure to information had significant relationship with knowledge, perception, and acceptance of HPV vaccination and screening for cervical cancer. Conclusions: Either knowledge or perception of cervical cancer and strategies toward it among Indonesian women particularly in Yogyakarta province were still unsatisfied. Efforts should be improved for supporting cervical cancer prevention and control in Indonesia through such as education on cervical cancer disease and strategies toward it. Creative Commons Attribution License
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  21. 21
    Peer Reviewed

    Evaluation of human-papillomavirus testing and visual inspection for cervical cancer screening in Rwanda.

    Umulisa MC; Franceschi S; Baussano I; Tenet V; Uwimbabazi M; Rugwizangoga B; Heideman DAM; Uyterlinde AM; Darragh TM; Snijders PJF; Sayinzoga F; Clifford GM

    BMC Women's Health. 2018 Apr 24; 18(1):59.

    BACKGROUND: A pilot screening campaign in Rwanda, based on careHPV-testing followed by visual inspection with acetic acid triage (careHPV+VIA triage), was evaluated against other WHO-recommended screening options, namely HPV screen-and-treat and VIA screen-and-treat. METHODS: 764 women aged 30-69 underwent at visit 1: i) VIA, and cervical cell collection for ii) careHPV in Rwanda, and iii) liquid-based cytology and GP5+/6+ HR-HPV PCR in The Netherlands. All 177 women positive by VIA, careHPV and/or PCR were recalled, of whom 84% attended. At visit 2, VIA was again used to triage screen-positive women for treatment and to obtain biopsies from all women either from visible lesions or at 12 o'clock of the squamocolumnar junction. Cross-sectional screening indices were estimated primarily against histological high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or worse (hHSIL+), after imputation of missing histology data, based on 1-visit or 2-visit approaches. RESULTS: In a 1-visit screen-and-treat approach, VIA had sensitivity and specificity of 41% and 96%, respectively, versus 71% and 88% for careHPV, and 88% and 86% for PCR. In a 2-visit approach (in which hHSIL+ imputed among women without visit 2 were considered untreated) careHPV sensitivity dropped to 59% due to loss of 13% of hHSIL+. For careHPV+VIA triage, sensitivity dropped further to 35%, as another 24% of hHSIL+ were triaged to no treatment. CONCLUSIONS: CareHPV was not as sensitive as gold-standard PCR, but detected considerably more hHSIL+ than VIA. However, due to careHPV-positive hHSIL+ women being lost to follow-up and/or triaged to no treatment, 2-visit careHPV+VIA triage did not perform better than VIA screen-and-treat.
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  22. 22
    Peer Reviewed

    Cervical cancer screening through human papillomavirus testing in community health campaigns versus health facilities in rural western Kenya.

    Huchko MJ; Ibrahim S; Blat C; Cohen CR; Smith JS; Hiatt RA; Bukusi E

    International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 2018 Apr; 141(1):63-69.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of community health campaigns (CHCs) as a strategy for human papillomavirus (HPV)-based cervical cancer screening in rural western Kenya. METHODS: Between January and November 2016, a cluster-randomized trial was carried out in 12 communities in western Kenya to investigate high-risk HPV testing offered via self-collection to women aged 25-65 years in CHCs versus government health facilities. Outcome measures were the total number of women accessing cervical cancer screening and the proportion of HPV-positive women accessing treatment. RESULTS: In total, 4944 women underwent HPV-based cervical cancer screening in CHCs (n=2898) or health facilities (n=2046). Screening uptake as a proportion of total eligible women in the population was greater in communities assigned to CHCs (60.0% vs 37.0%, P<0.001). Rates of treatment acquisition were low in both arms (CHCs 39.2%; health facilities 31.5%; P=0.408). DISCUSSION: Cervical cancer screening using HPV testing of self-collected samples reached a larger proportion of women when offered through periodic CHCs compared with health facilities. The community-based model is a promising strategy for cervical cancer prevention. Lessons learned from this trial can be used to identify ways of maximizing the impact of such strategies through greater community participation and improved linkage to treatment. registration: NCT02124252. (c) 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.
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  23. 23

    Knowledge, perceptions and practice of cervical cancer prevention among female public secondary school teachers in Mushin local government area of Lagos State, Nigeria.

    Toye MA; Okunade KS; Roberts AA; Salako O; Oridota ES; Onajole AT

    Pan African Medical Journal. 2017; 28:221.

    Introduction: Cervical cancer is the most common gynecological cancer and a leading cause of cancer death in women in Nigeria. This study was aimed to assess the knowledge, perception, and practice of cervical cancer prevention among female public secondary school teachers in Mushin, Lagos. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out among female secondary school teachers in Mushin, Lagos. The participants were selected by a two-stage random sampling method and relevant data were collected with the use a self-administered questionnaire. Data entry and analysis were done using Epi-info version 7.2 statistical software and descriptive statistics were computed for all data. Results: The knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention was 100.0% among the respondents. The most commonly known method of cervical cancer screening identified by the respondents was Papanicolaou smear (91.4%). More than half of the women (67.0%) have had at least one cervical cancer screening done previously. Only 2.2% of the respondents have had HPV vaccine given to their female teenage children in the past despite the acceptance rate for HPV vaccination being 76.2%. Conclusion: This study, unlike most previous studies in other regions of Nigeria and most part of sub-Saharan Africa, has demonstrated a relatively high level of awareness about cervical cancer, its cause, risk factors and prevention. However, conversely, the absence of a national health programme means that screening and vaccination centers are not available, accessible or affordable.
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  24. 24
    Peer Reviewed

    HPV Screening and Vaccination Strategies in an Unscreened Population: A Mathematical Modeling Study.

    Milwid RM; Frascoli F; Steben M; Heffernan JM

    Bulletin of Mathematical Biology. 2018 Apr 12;

    Human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection, is the necessary cause of cervical cancer, the third most common cancer affecting women worldwide. Prevention and control strategies include vaccination, screening, and treatment. While HPV prevention and control efforts are important worldwide, they are especially important in low-income areas with a high infection rate or high rate of cervical cancer. This study uses mathematical modeling to explore various vaccination and treatment strategies to control for HPV and cervical cancer while using Nepal as a case study. Two sets of deterministic models were created with the goal of understanding the impact of various prevention and control strategies. The first set of models examines the relative importance of screening and vaccination in an unscreened population, while the second set examines various screening scenarios. Partial rank correlation coefficients confirm the importance of screening and treatment in the reduction of HPV infections and cancer cases even when vaccination uptake is high. Results also indicate that less expensive screening technologies can achieve the same overall goal as more expensive screening technologies.
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  25. 25

    Agreement of self- and physician-collected samples for detection of high-risk human papillomavirus infections in women attending a colposcopy clinic in Thailand.

    Phoolcharoen N; Kantathavorn N; Krisorakun W; Sricharunrat T; Teerayathanakul N; Taepisitpong C; Sornsamdang G; Krongthong W; Saeloo S

    BMC Research Notes. 2018 Feb 20; 11(1):136.

    OBJECTIVE: To study the concordance between vaginal self- and endocervical physician-collected high-risk (hr) HPV testing in Thai women who attended a colposcopy clinic. Vaginal samples were obtained by self-sampling with a dry brush before endocervical samples were obtained by physicians. Both specimens were analyzed for hrHPV by Cobas4800 HPV test. RESULTS: Of the 247 pairs of samples, overall hrHPV prevalence from self- and physician-collected samples was 41.3 and 36.0%, respectively. The overall agreement between the methods was 74.5% with kappa 0.46 (P < 0.001). Our study revealed moderate agreement between self- and physician-collected methods for hrHPV testing.
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