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Effects of a participatory community quality improvement strategy on improving household and provider health care behaviors and practices: a propensity score analysis.
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2018 Sep 24; 18(Suppl 1):364.BACKGROUND: Maternal and newborn health care intervention coverage has increased in many low-income countries over the last decade, yet poor quality of care remains a challenge, limiting health gains. The World Health Organization envisions community engagement as a critical component of health care delivery systems to ensure quality services, responsive to community needs. Aligned with this, a Participatory Community Quality Improvement (PCQI) strategy was introduced in Ethiopia, in 14 of 91 rural woredas (districts) where the Last Ten Kilometers Project (L10 K) Platform activities were supporting national Basic Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care (BEmONC) strengthening strategies. This paper examines the effects of the PCQI strategy in improving maternal and newborn care behaviors, and providers' and households' practices. METHODS: PCQI engages communities in identifying barriers to access and quality of services, and developing, implementing and monitoring solutions. Thirty-four intervention kebeles (communities), which included the L10 K Platform, BEmONC, and PCQI, and 82 comparison kebeles, which included the L10 K Platform and BEmONC, were visited in December 2010-January 2011 and again 48 months later. Twelve women with children aged 0 to 11 months were interviewed in each kebele. Propensity score matching was used to estimate the program's average treatment effects (ATEs) on women's care seeking behavior, providers' service provision behavior and households' newborn care practices. RESULTS: The ATEs of PCQI were statistically significant (p < 0.05) for two care seeking behaviors - four or more antenatal care (ANC) visits and institutional deliveries at 14% (95% CI: 6, 21) and 11% (95% CI: 4, 17), respectively - and one service provision behavior - complete ANC at 17% (95% CI: 11, 24). We found no evidence of an effect on remaining outcomes relating to household newborn care practices, and postnatal care performed by the provider. CONCLUSIONS: National BEmONC strengthening and government initiatives to improve access and quality of maternal and newborn health services, together with L10 K Platform activities, appeared to work better for some care practices where communities were engaged in the PCQI strategy. Additional research with more robust measure of impact and cost-effectiveness analysis would be useful to establish effectiveness for a wider set of outcomes.
The potential of community engagement to improve mother and child health in Ethiopia - what works and how should it be measured?
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2018 Sep 24; 18(Suppl 1):366.Add to my documents.
Is quality of care during childbirth consistent from admission to discharge? A qualitative study of delivery care in Uttar Pradesh, India.
PloS One. 2018; 13(9):e0204607.BACKGROUND: Improving quality of maternal healthcare services is key to reducing maternal mortality across developing nations, including India. Expanding access to institutionalized care alone has failed to address critical quality barriers to safe, effective, patient-centred, timely and equitable care. Multi-dimensional quality improvement focusing on Person Centred Care(PCC) has an important role in expanding utilization of maternal health services and reducing maternal mortality. METHODS: Nine public health facilities were selected in two rural districts of Uttar Pradesh(UP), India, to understand women's experiences of childbirth and identify quality gaps in the process of maternity care. 23 direct, non-participant observations of uncomplicated vaginal deliveries were conducted using checklists with special reference to PCC, capturing quality of care provision at five stages-admission; pre-delivery; delivery; post-delivery and discharge. Data was thematically analysed using the framework approach. Case studies, good practices and gaps were noted at each stage of delivery care. RESULTS: Admission to maternity wards was generally prompt. All deliveries were conducted by skilled providers and at least one staff was available at all times. Study findings were discussed under two broad themes of care 'structure' and 'process'. While infrastructure, supplies and human resource were available across most facilities, gaps were observed in the process of care, particularly during delivery and post-delivery stages. Key areas of concern included compromised patient safety like poor hand hygiene, usage of unsterilized instruments; inadequate clinical care like lack of routine monitoring of labour progression, inadequate postpartum care; partially compromised privacy in the labour room and postnatal ward; and few incidents of abuse and demand for informal payments. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings reflect gaps in the quality of maternity care across public health facilities in the study area and support the argument for strengthening PCC as an important effort towards quality improvement across the continuum of delivery care.
Oral cholera vaccine coverage during a preventive door-to-door mass vaccination campaign in Nampula, Mozambique.
PloS One. 2018; 13(10):e0198592.BACKGROUND: In addition to improving water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) measures and optimal case management, the introduction of Oral cholera vaccine (OCV) is a complementary strategy for cholera prevention and control for vulnerable population groups. In October 2016, the Mozambique Ministry of Health implemented a mass vaccination campaign using a two-dose regimen of the Shanchol OCV in six high-risk neighborhoods of Nampula city, in Northern Mozambique. Overall 193,403 people were targeted by the campaign, which used a door-to-door strategy. During campaign follow-up, a population survey was conducted to assess: (1) OCV coverage; (2) frequency of adverse events following immunization; (3) vaccine acceptability and (4) reasons for non-vaccination. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the absence of a household listing and clear administrative neighborhood delimitations, we used geospatial technology to select households from satellite images and used the support of community leaders. One person per household was randomly selected for interview. In total, 636 individuals were enrolled in the survey. The overall vaccination coverage with at least one dose (including card and oral reporting) was 69.5% (95%CI: 51.2-88.2) and the two-dose coverage was 51.2% (95%CI: 37.9-64.3). The campaign was well accepted. Among the 185 non-vaccinated individuals, 83 (44.6%) did not take the vaccine because they were absent when the vaccination team visited their houses. Among the 451 vaccinated individuals, 47 (10%) reported minor and non-specific complaints, and 78 (17.3%) mentioned they did not receive any information before the campaign. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In spite of overall coverage being slightly lower than expected, the use of a mobile door-to-door strategy remains a viable option even in densely-populated urban settings. Our results suggest that campaigns can be successfully implemented and well accepted in Mozambique in non-emergency contexts in order to prevent cholera outbreaks. These findings are encouraging and complement the previous Mozambican experience related to OCV.
Does payment for performance increase performance inequalities across health providers? A case study of Tanzania.
Health Policy and Planning. 2018 Nov 1; 33(9):1026-1036.The impact of payment-for-performance (P4P) schemes in the health sector has been documented, but there has been little attention to the distributional effects of P4P across health facilities. We examined the distribution of P4P payouts over time and assessed whether increased service coverage due to P4P differed across facilities in Tanzania. We used two service outcomes that improved due to P4P [facility-based deliveries and provision of antimalarials during antenatal care (ANC)], to also assess whether incentive design matters for performance inequalities. We used data from 150 facilities from intervention and comparison areas in January 2012 and 13 months later. Our primary data were gathered through facility survey and household survey, while data on performance payouts were obtained from the programme administrator. Descriptive inequality measures were used to examine the distribution of payouts across facility subgroups. Difference-in-differences regression analyses were used to identify P4P differential effects on the two service coverage outcomes across facility subgroups. We found that performance payouts were initially higher among higher-level facilities (hospitals and health centres) compared with dispensaries, among facilities with more medical commodities and among facilities serving wealthier populations, but these inequalities declined over time. P4P had greater effects on coverage of institutional deliveries among facilities with low baseline performance, serving middle wealth populations and located in rural areas. P4P effects on antimalarials provision during ANC was similar across facilities. Performance inequalities were influenced by the design of incentives and a range of facility characteristics; however, the nature of the service being targeted is also likely to have affected provider response. Further research is needed to examine in more detail the effects of incentive design on outcomes and researchers should be encouraged to report on design aspects in their evaluations of P4P and systematically monitor and report subgroup effects across providers.
Journal of Nepal Health Research Council. 2018 Oct 30; 16(3):340-344.BACKGROUND: Nepal has made a significant progress in reducing child mortality. However, the annual rate of reduction in neonatal mortality is not satisfactory. As safeguarded by constitution of Nepal and to address neonatal mortality due to poverty and inequity, government has introduced free newborn care (FNC) package. This study aims to assess the status of FNC services in all the public hospitals. METHODS: Child Health Division organized 5 workshops region-wise with the theme of newborn care services in March/April 2018 to cover all the public hospitals in the country. A template was designed comprising of duration of FNC implementation, number of newborns admitted since implementation, morbidities pattern, and number of babies served. It was circulated and all hospitals were advised to fill it and present in the review. Later, the data were compiled and analyzed. RESULTS: Only 58 presentations out of 93 participated hospitals were included in this study. The total admitted cases were 8564 newborns. The common causes of admission were neonatal sepsis (44.5%) followed by asphyxia (14.29%) and hyperbilirubinemia (11.4%). A total of 1573 neonates received services of FNC package C, 3722 package B, 3081 received package A. The main challenges faced in implementation reported were lack of infrastructure and human resources to provide services and the reimbursement is not enough. CONCLUSIONS: Free newborn care is a new initiative taken to reduce neonatal mortality. This package is very helpful to serve sick newborns. However, the package should be revised taking into consideration the appropriate reimbursement and extra staffs to provide this service.
Journal of Nepal Health Research Council. 2018 Oct 30; 16(3):359-361.Chlorhexidine is a broad-spectrum antiseptic, effective on gram positive and gram negative bacteria as well as some viruses, having strong skin binding effect. Randomized controlled trials conducted in South Asian countries have proven that the use of chlorhexidine (4% weight/weight) for cord care can reduce neonatal mortality and prevent severe cord infections. Between 2011 and 2017, Nepal completed nationwide scale-up of the use of chlorhexidine by integrating with ongoing maternal and neonatal health programs, under the leadership of the Child Health Division. The chlorhexidine coverage and compliance study (2017) has revealed that the country has achieved 59% coverage of the intervention to date, with lowest use among home births. The strategy should be further strengthened to ensure that every newborn in need is reached with chlorhexidine. Keywords: Chlorhexidine; cord care; Nepal experience, Newborn.
Predictive factors of the interruption of exclusive breastfeeding in premature infants: a prospective cohort.
Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem. 2018 Nov-Dec; 71(6):2876-2882.OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the incidence of exclusive breastfeeding and the risk factors associated to its interruption in premature infants after hospital discharge. METHOD: this is a prospective cohort with 113 premature infants in a neonatal unit, whom were followed-up from 7 to 15 days after hospital discharge. The outcome was the interruption of exclusive breastfeeding. Maternal and neonatal exposure variables were evaluated by a regression model and described by the confidence interval (95%) and risk ratio. RESULTS: exclusive breastfeeding rate was 81.4% at discharge and 66.4% at 7 to 15 days after discharge. Double gestation, time of mechanical ventilation and birth weight were associated with higher risks of interruption of exclusive breastfeeding after discharge. CONCLUSION: there is a need for the implementation of actions that promote the early onset and maintenance of exclusive breastfeeding of premature infants.
Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem. 2018 Nov-Dec; 71(6):2953-2960.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the knowledge of breastfeeding (BF) and supplementary feeding (SF) of professionals in the Primary Health Care. METHOD: Cross-sectional study, with 168 professionals, conducted between June and September 2016. The Kruskal Wallis test was used to compare means of percentage of knowledge about BF and SF, by professional category and contingency testing, for association between variables. RESULTS: From the total of professionals, 39.29% of them demonstrated good knowledge about BF and 2.38% about SF; 74.4% of respondents reported not knowing the program Brazilian Breastfeeding and Feeding Strategy (EAAB - Estrategia Amamenta e Alimenta Brasil). There was a positive association between professionals' level of knowledge about BF and education (p=0.04), occupation (p=0.05) and healthcare in BF (p=0.04). Regarding the level of knowledge about SF, there was association between education (p<0.01) and healthcare in SF (p=0.04). CONCLUSION: The professionals have greater knowledge about breastfeeding when compared to supplementary feeding.
Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association. 2019; 94(1):2.Background: Chickenpox infection acquired during pregnancy is a serious condition. There may be congenital malformations and neonatal varicella syndrome with significant morbidity and mortality. Egypt has no routine varicella-zoster vaccination program. Objective: To assess the immune status against varicella-zoster virus (VZV) antibodies among a group of pregnant women and to study the relationship between VZV seroprevalence and some sociodemographic characteristics. Subjects and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on a group of pregnant women (n = 333) attending antenatal care (ANC) clinic at Fayoum University Hospital. Serologic testing for VZV was performed using ELISA through the years 2016-2017. Results: VZV seroprevalence was detected in 294 (88.3%) of the 333 recruited pregnant women. Older age > 25 years old was significantly associated with low percent of VZV-negative antibodies (6.7% in versus 17.4% in younger age, OR (95%CI) 0.34 (0.17-0.70)), also having more than one child was significantly associated with a low percent of VZV-negative antibodies (8.2% versus 16.1% among participants with no children or having one child, OR 0.34 (0.17-0.70)). Conclusions: Despite the absence of a routine VZV vaccination program in Egypt, VZV immunity was high among pregnant women, but less than that reported in many developed countries. We recommend targeted vaccination for women in the reproductive age especially young and primipara. Trial registration: Ethical Committee Registration number R67 session 42: date 12/11/2017(retrospectively registered).
High prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnant women attended at Primary Health Care services in Amazon, Brazil.
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo. 2019 Feb 14; 61:e6.Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection is often silent and can lead to long-term reproductive complications in women. In this study, we determined the prevalence of CT infection and possible associations between the presence of the infection and clinical-epidemiological variables in pregnant women attended at the Basic Health Units of the Coari city, Amazonas, Brazil. From July 2016 to March 2017, 164 pregnant women undergoing prenatal care were recruited. One hundred of these women were tested for CT infection using two types of samples: cervico-vaginal and urine. The diagnosis was confirmed by PCR with primers specific for the omp1 gene of CT chromosomal DNA. Of the 100 pregnant women, 18 (18%) had CT infection, 8 (8%) of which were positive in both samples, 7 (7%) only in the urine sample and 3 (3%) only in cervical-vaginal sample. There was moderate agreement (Kappa=0.55) and no statistically significant difference between sample types (p = 0.400). The mean age of infected women was 21.1 years (SD = 4.6). Of the clinical-epidemiological variables analyzed, "more than 2 partners in the last 12 months" (p = 0.022) and gynecological complaint of "pain after intercourse" (p = 0.020) were associated with CT infection. This study showed a high prevalence (18%) of CT infection among pregnant women in Coari / Amazonas. Urine sampales were as good as cervical-vaginal ones for the screening of CT infection during the prenatal period.
Effects of a community-based data for decision-making intervention on maternal and newborn health care practices in Ethiopia: a dose-response study.
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2018 Sep 24; 18(Suppl 1):359.BACKGROUND: Community participation and community health volunteer programs are an essential part of the health system so that health services are responsive and accountable to community needs. Information systems are necessary for community health volunteer programs to be effective, yet effectiveness evaluations of such information systems implemented at scale are rare. In October 2010, a network of female volunteers with little or no literacy, the Women's Development Army (WDA), was added to extend Ethiopia's Health Extension Program services to every household in the community. Between July 2013 and January 2015, a health management information system for the WDA's Community-Based Data for Decision-Making (CBDDM) strategy was implemented in 115 rural districts to improve the demand for and utilization of maternal and newborn health services. Using the CBDDM strategy, Health Extension Workers (HEWs) fostered the WDA and community leaders to inform, lead, own, plan, and monitor the maternal and newborn health interventions in their kebeles (communities). This paper examines the effectiveness of the CBDDM strategy. METHODS: Using data from cross-sectional surveys in 2010-11 and 2014-15 from 177 kebeles, we estimated self-reported maternal and newborn care practices from women with children aged 0 to 11 months (2124 at baseline and 2113 at follow-up), and a CBDDM implementation strength score in each kebele. Using kebele-level random-effects models, we assessed dose-response relationships between changes over time in implementation strength score and changes in maternal and newborn care practices between the two surveys. RESULTS: Kebeles with relatively high increases in CBDDM implementation strength score had larger improvements in the coverage of neonatal tetanus-protected childbirths, institutional deliveries, clean cord care for newborns, thermal care for newborns, and immediate initiation of breastfeeding. However, there was no evidence of any effect of the intervention on postnatal care within 2 days of childbirth. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows the extent to which an information system for community health volunteers with low literacy was implemented at scale, and evidence of effectiveness at scale in improving maternal and newborn health care behaviors and practices.
Evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of the treatment of uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition by lady health workers as compared to an outpatient therapeutic feeding programme in Sindh Province, Pakistan.
BMC Public Health. 2019 Jan 17; 19(1):84.BACKGROUND: Due to the limited evidence of the cost-effectiveness of Community Health Workers (CHW) delivering treatment for severe acute malnutrition (SAM), there is a need to better understand the costs incurred by both implementing institutions and beneficiary households. This study assessed the costs and cost-effectiveness of treatment for cases of SAM without complications delivered by government-employed Lady Health Workers (LHWs) and complemented with non-governmental organisation (NGO) delivered outpatient facility-based care compared with NGO delivered outpatient facility-based care only alongside a two-arm randomised controlled trial conducted in Sindh Province, Pakistan. METHODS: An activity-based cost model was used, employing a societal perspective to include costs incurred by beneficiaries and the wider community. Costs were estimated through accounting records, interviews and informal group discussions. Cost-effectiveness was assessed for each arm relative to no intervention, and incrementally between the two interventions, providing information on both absolute and relative costs and effects. RESULTS: The cost per child recovered in outpatient facility-based care was similar to LHW-delivered care, at 363 USD and 382 USD respectively. An additional 146 USD was spent per additional child recovered by outpatient facilities compared to LHWs. Results of sensitivity analyses indicated considerable uncertainty in which strategy was most cost-effective due to small differences in cost and recovery rates between arms. The cost to the beneficiary household of outpatient facility-based care was double that of LHW-delivered care. CONCLUSIONS: Outpatient facility-based care was found to be slightly more cost-effective compared to LHW-delivered care, despite the potential for cost-effectiveness of CHWs managing SAM being demonstrated in other settings. The similarity of cost-effectiveness outcomes between the two models resulted in uncertainty as to which strategy was the most cost-effective. Similarity of costs and effectiveness between models suggests that whether it is appropriate to engage LHWs in substituting or complementing outpatient facilities may depend on population needs, including coverage and accessibility of existing services, rather than be purely a consideration of cost. Future research should assess the cost-effectiveness of LHW-delivered care when delivered solely by the government. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03043352 , ClinicalTrials.gov. Retrospectively registered.
Ugandan health workers' and mothers' views and experiences of the quality of maternity care and the use of informal solutions: A qualitative study.
PloS One. 2019; 14(3):e0213511.INTRODUCTION: Although the coverage of maternity services in some low and middle-income countries (LMIC) has greatly improved, the quality of maternity care remains poor, and maternal mortality rates are high. In this study, we describe the meaning and determinants of maternity care quality from the perspective of health workers and mothers in Uganda, the informal solutions used by health workers to manage their daily challenges, and we suggest ways in which maternal care quality can be improved. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative study in the Mpigi and Rukungiri districts of Uganda. Twenty-eight health workers based at selected health centres participated in structured interviews. Thirty-six mothers, half of whom had delivered at health facilities, participated in focus group discussions. Data were analysed thematically, and informed by the WHO framework on quality of care for maternal and newborn health and by Lipsky's street level bureaucracy concept. RESULTS: According to health workers, knowledge of clinical standards and processes, timeliness, and women's choice during labour, as well as resources, physical infrastructure; collaboration with mothers, professionals and community health workers; were important aspects of good quality care. Mothers' perceptions of good quality care were largely similar to health workers' views, though mothers were more concerned about health workers' interaction skills. Structural challenges sometimes led health workers to develop informal solutions such as asking mothers to purchase their own supplies with variable implications on the quality of care. While several of these informal solutions were useful in addressing bottlenecks in the health system, they sometimes placed additional burdens and personal costs on health workers, created mistrust, inequity in care and negative experiences among mothers who could not afford the extra costs. CONCLUSIONS: Health system structural factors; including technical, interpersonal, resource and infrastructural factors; impede the provision and experience of good quality maternity care at health centres in Uganda. Improving the quality of care will require strategies that address these core problems in the health system structure. Such structural reforms will require political support to commit resources, skilful management and leadership that seek to change organisational behaviour and build trust through good quality, woman-centred maternity care.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2018 Nov 1; 96(11):760-771.Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of results-based financing and input-based financing to increase use and quality of maternal and child health services in rural areas of Zambia. Methods: In a cluster-randomized trial from April 2012 to June 2014, 30 districts were allocated to three groups: results-based financing (increased funding tied to performance on pre-agreed indicators), input-based financing (increased funding not tied to performance) or control (no additional funding), serving populations of 1.33, 1.26 and 1.40 million people, respectively. We assessed incremental financial costs for programme implementation and verification, consumables and supervision. We evaluated coverage and quality effectiveness of maternal and child health services before and after the trial, using data from household and facility surveys, and converted these to quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. Findings: Coverage and quality of care increased significantly more in results-based financing than control districts: difference in differences for coverage were 12.8% for institutional deliveries, 8.2% postnatal care, 19.5% injectable contraceptives, 3.0% intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy and 6.1% to 29.4% vaccinations. In input-based financing districts, coverage increased significantly more versus the control for institutional deliveries (17.5%) and postnatal care (13.2%). Compared with control districts, 641 more lives were saved (lower-upper bounds: 580-700) in results-based financing districts and 362 lives (lower-upper bounds: 293-430) in input-based financing districts. The corresponding incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were 809 United States dollars (US$) and US$ 413 per QALY gained, respectively. Conclusion: Compared with the control, both results-based financing and input-based financing were cost-effective in Zambia.
How reliable and valid are the self-reports of sexual behavior among HIV discordant couples in Pune, India.
Psychology, Health and Medicine. 2018 Jan - Dec; 23(sup1):1333-1340.Reliability of self-reported sexual and safe sex behavior among heterosexual HIV discordant couples was assessed by matching individual responses of couples to a common set of questions and validated by matching with pregnancy and seroconversion during study period. Demographic, clinical and sexual behavior information was collected individually from 457 consenting married discordant couples using structured questionnaires at screening, enrollment and at four quarterly visits. Reliability of self-reports tested using Kappa statistics. At screening, level of agreement about spouse being regular partner (Kappa = 0.96) and having had sexual intercourse with spouse in the last quarter (Kappa = 0.84) was noted. Moderate agreement observed about frequency of condom use (Kappa = 0.639) and condom tear (Kappa = 0.428). Agreement on reporting sexual contacts with spouse and consistent condom use increased (P < 0.001) over follow-ups. Four of 6 couples that seroconverted reported using condoms consistently, and 2 of these seroconverted. Couple histories of all 11 sero-discordant couples reporting pregnancy matched, of these 8 couples reported use of condoms and only 3 couples reported non-use of condoms during the preceding period. Sensitive sexual information can be collected using self-reports but it should be used with caution. Involving couples and using biological parameters concurrently may enhance validity of self-reports.
Commentary on: "Reduced burden of childhood diarrheal diseases through increased access to water and sanitation in India: A modelling analysis".
Social Science and Medicine. 2017 May; 180:193-195.Add to my documents.
Asian Journal of Psychiatry. 2018 Mar; 33:45.Add to my documents.
A cohort of women with ectopic pregnancy: challenges in diagnosis and management in a rural hospital in a low-income country.
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2018 May 11; 18(1):159.BACKGROUND: Ectopic pregnancy (EP) is a serious complication of early pregnancy. In low-income countries diagnosis of EP is difficult and it is a major contributor to maternal mortality. We aimed to assess and improve the diagnostic process of women with EP. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective medical records study of all women with confirmed EP in Ndala Hospital from 2010 to 2012. We used data on demographics, symptoms, diagnostic procedures, surgical findings, treatment and post-operative status. RESULTS: Six thousand six hundred sixty-two women gave birth in the hospital, and 88 women were diagnosed with EP (incidence 1.3%). Thirty-nine percent of women did not report to be pregnant or to have a history of amenorrhea. On admission in Ndala hospital, a diagnosis of 'suspected EP' was made in less than half (47%) of the cases. Most women had a urine pregnancy test done (sensitivity of 98%). Peritoneal aspiration was done in 42%. The fifty-five women with EP who were diagnosed by ultrasound received a lower mean number of units of blood transfusion and had less often severe anaemia than women who were diagnosed by abdominal aspiration (abdominocentesis). The majority of women (65%) had surgery within 24 h after admission. CONCLUSIONS: Diagnosing EP in a rural hospital in Tanzania is challenging. Often there is a large doctors' delay before the right diagnosis is made. Abdominal aspiration can be useful for rapid diagnosis. A pelvic ultrasound, when available, allows the diagnosis to be made earlier with less intra-abdominal bleeding.
Exploring Iranian women's perceptions and experiences regarding cervical cancer-preventive behaviors.
BMC Women's Health. 2018 Aug 31; 18(1):145.BACKGROUND: Preventive behaviors regarding cervical cancer are essential for women's health. Even though many studies have addressed women's knowledge and attitudes toward cervical cancer, little information is available about their experiences of cervical cancer-preventive behaviors. Thus, the aim of this study is to explore the perceptions and experiences of Iranian women regarding cervical cancer-preventive behaviors. METHODS: This study used a qualitative approach and was conducted in Zanjan, Iran. Participants included 27 women, aged 20-60 years, with no previous history of cervical cancer symptoms or diagnosis. Data were obtained through semi-structured in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Inductive qualitative content analysis was employed to converge and compare themes through participant data. RESULTS: The following six main themes emerged from the analysis: attitudes toward cervical cancer and preventive behaviors, preventive behaviors' concept, self-care, religion and culture, perceived social support, and awareness about cervical cancer and preventive behavior. The findings revealed that several women had misconceptions about cervical cancer and were even superstitious about the causes of it. Fear, shame, and embarrassment were reasons for not undertaking cervical cancer screening. Cervical cancer was also linked to worries about decreased marital satisfaction, sexuality, and femininity. However, religion was considered a positive factor to conducting cancer-preventive behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that improving knowledge about the causes of cervical cancer, increasing awareness of the potential consequences of it, and creating positive attitudes toward screening behavior might encourage Iranian women to perform cervical cancer-preventive behaviors.
BMC Public Health. 2019 Jan 17; 19(1):80.BACKGROUND: Incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer in Bolivia are the highest in Latin America. Vaginal cell self-sampling can improve screening coverage. Information on common reasons for low screening coverage and preferences for future screening are essential to reduce cervical cancer incidence. We aimed to evaluate the knowledge about human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer of Bolivian women from urban, peri-urban and rural areas of Cochabamba and to determine their degree of acceptability and confidence towards vaginal HPV self-sampling. In addition, we assessed the impact of self-sampling on cervical cancer screening coverage in a selected peri-urban area. METHODS: We gathered information from women living in urban, peri-urban and rural areas of Cochabamba province in Bolivia using two different structured questionnaires. In Survey1, we collected information from 222 women about their knowledge on HPV and cervical cancer. In Survey 2, the acceptance and confidence towards vaginal HPV self-sampling compared to the physician-sampling was assessed in 221 women. A non-probabilistic stratified sampling by areas was carried out for the two questionnaires. In the third phase of the study, we determined the impact of HPV self-sampling collection on screening coverage in a peri-urban area of Cochabamba. RESULTS: Bolivian women knew little or nothing about cervical cancer and HPV infection in all areas. They all found self-sampling collection easier to perform (86.9 to 93.2%) and more comfortable (79.4 to 83.3%) compared to physician sampling. Sampling accuracy to detect cervical cancer was probably higher in their point of view when it was taken by physician (35.1 to 63.5%). However in rural areas women preferred self-sampling. Accordingly, the campaign of vaginal HPV self-sampling in this peri-urban area increased screening coverage, reaching in three months the annual rate average. CONCLUSIONS: The knowledge about cervical cancer and HPV infection is poor in Bolivia. Despite greater acceptance of the vaginal HPV self-sampling in all areas, women kept greater confidence in the screening performed by the gynecologist although HPV self-sampling improved coverage rate.
Environmental injustice and childhood lead exposure in peri-urban (ger) areas of Darkhan and Erdenet, Mongolia.
BMC Public Health. 2019 Feb 7; 19(1):163.BACKGROUND: The ger ("tent city") areas in Mongolia are a product of rapid urbanization and transitional economic development combine with lack of institutional, administrative and financial capacity of governments to cope with the pace. These areas have become traps for inequities in social and environmental services and the associated effects on human health. Disparities in childhood lead exposure in such communities are largely unexplored. METHODS: We measured the concentrations of lead in blood of children, aged 4-7 years, in Erdenet (Orkhon Province) and Darkhan (Darkhan-Uul Province), the second and third largest cities in Mongolia. A survey instrument was used to gather information on influencing factors on lead exposure and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to assess a spectrum of behavioral problems among the children. RESULTS: The mean blood lead level (BLL) of children in the two cities was found to be 3.8 +/- 2.6 mug/dL (range: < 1.5-17.2 mug/dL) and 27.8% of the children had BLLs >/=5 mug/dL. Average BLL of children in Erdenet (a mining center) was significantly higher than that for children in Darkhan, and there was statistically significant difference between average BLL of children who live in ger district (4.2 +/- 2.8 mug/dL) compared to those of children in housing units within the city (3.2 +/- 2.4 mug/dL). In spite of the low values, BLLs was significantly associated with a number of effects on the spectrum of behavioral disorders, specifically with the scores for hyperactivity, conduct disorder and pro-social behavior. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that childhood lead poisoning is common especially in ger communities of the urban areas of Mongolia. It contributes evidence showing that BLL low as 3.8 mug/dL can selectively activate some effects from a spectrum of likely behavioral disorders in children.
Predictors of More Effective Contraceptive Method Use at 12 Weeks Post-Abortion: A Prospective Cohort Study.
Journal of Women's Health. 2019 Mar 11;BACKGROUND: Understanding factors associated with contraceptive use post-abortion can inform clinical practices to improve contraception uptake. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included adult women who completed the survey before surgical abortion at an Atlanta, Georgia clinic, with an online survey 12 weeks later. Poisson regression models assessed associations between demographic and reproductive factors and use of more effective (contraceptive pill, ring, patch, injectables, intrauterine device [IUD], implant, sterilization) versus less effective (none, condoms, withdrawal, rhythm methods) contraception at follow-up. RESULTS: Three hundred ninety three women completed the initial survey; 180 (46%) completed follow-up. Of those completing follow-up, 109 (61%) expressed interest in initiating more effective methods in-clinic, yet only 85 (47%) reported using these methods at follow-up. Sixty-one women (34%) were not using their preferred contraceptive at follow-up; 34 (56%) of whom preferred to use IUD, implant, or sterilization. More effective contraception use was significantly associated with age over 30 (adjusted risk ratio, aRR 1.71, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14-2.57); nulliparity (aRR 1.70, 95% CI: 1.20-2.42); use of more effective methods at most recent conception (aRR 2.56, 95% CI: 1.73-3.79); interest in more effective methods at the time of the abortion (aRR 1.55, 95% CI: 1.11-2.18); and receiving a contraceptive/prescription at the time of abortion (aRR 1.97, 95% CI: 1.37-2.81). CONCLUSIONS: Over half of women use less effective contraception 3 months post-abortion, despite a high interest in more effective contraception. Additional research is needed to understand contraceptive decision making in the context of abortion care to inform interventions to increase contraceptive uptake.
Examining inequality of opportunity in the use of maternal and reproductive health interventions in Sierra Leone.
Journal of Public Health. 2019 Mar 11;BACKGROUND: Poor countries, such as Sierra Leone, often have poor health outcomes, whereby the majority of the population cannot access lifesaving health services. Access to, and use of, maternal and reproductive health services is crucial for human development, especially in developing regions. However, inequality remains a persistent problem for many developing countries. Moreover, we have not found empirical studies, which have examined inequalities in maternal and reproductive health in Sierra Leone. METHOD: We used data collected from the Sierra Leone Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted in 2008 and 2013. Five maternal and reproductive health indicators were selected for this study, including four or more antenatal care visits, skilled antenatal care provider, births delivered in a facility, births assisted by a skilled birth attendant, and any method of contraception. To measure inequalities, we adopted the Human Opportunity Index (HOI). Using this measure, we measured differentials over the two periods, and decomposed it to measure the contribution of the selected circumstance variables to inequality. RESULTS: Inequalities declined over time, as shown by the decrease in the dissimilarity index. Due to the drop in the dissimilarity index, the HOI increased for all the selected maternal and reproductive health indicators. Moreover, antenatal services were closer to equality compared to the other selected services. Overall, we found that household wealth status, maternal education and place of residence, are the most important factors contributing to the inequality in the use of maternal and reproductive health services. CONCLUSIONS: Even though there are improvements in inequalities over time, there are variations in the way in which inequality within the different indicators has improved. In order to improve the use of maternal and reproductive health services, and to reduce inequalities in these services, the government will have to invest in: (i) increasing the educational levels of women, (ii) improving the standard of living, as well as (iii) bringing maternal and reproductive health services closer to rural populations. (c) The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Determinants of adolescent reproductive health service utilization by senior high school students in Makassar, Indonesia.
BMC Public Health. 2019 Mar 11; 19(1):286.BACKGROUND: Adolescents face many problems due to risky behavior. As a result, they require special consideration through the administration of health education and reproductive health services. However the utilization of adolescent reproductive health service programs in Makassar is still relatively low. The purpose of this study, then, was to identify the rates at which adolescent reproductive health services are utilized and to analyze the determinants affecting such utilization. METHOD: This research was a quantitative project with a cross-sectional design, and it was conducted in March to May of 2018 in Makassar City. Data were collected via the independent completion of questionnaires by 383 senior high school students randomly selected from a total of six schools. Data were analyzed using chi-square testing and multiple logistic regression using SPSS. RESULTS: This study found that only 24.3% of the students took advantage of adolescent reproductive health services. The results of the analysis proved that knowledge of reproductive health and available services (OR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.040-2.911) are related to the utilization of those services. It was found that students with high levels of knowledge are nearly twice as likely to utilize adolescent reproductive health services as those with low levels of knowledge after the results were controlled for the variables of family and peer support. CONCLUSION: It is necessary to promote socialization between students and parents on a regular basis, disseminate information through online media/social networking, administer peer educator training, and establish school organizations in the field of reproductive health to increase awareness and utilization of adolescent reproductive health services.