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  1. 101

    Evaluation of the Impact of Childbirth Education Classes in Turkey on Adaptation to Pregnancy Process, Concerns About Birth, Rate of Vaginal Birth, and Adaptation to Maternity: A Case-Control Study.

    Pinar G; Avsar F; Aslantekin F

    Clinical Nursing Research. 2018 Mar; 27(3):315-342.

    This study aims to examine the impact of childbirth education in Turkey on the adaptation to pregnancy process, concerns about birth, rate of vaginal birth, and adaptation to maternity. This quasi-experimental study with control group was conducted from December 2013 to December 2014. The sample size was 132 primiparous pregnant women ( nexperimental = 66, ncontrol = 66). The average age of the pregnant women in the experimental and control groups was 24.41 +/- 3.92 and 23.68 +/- 4.19, respectively. The study showed that experimental group participants had lower concerns about birth, higher levels of knowledge, and faster adaptation to pregnancy and postpartum process; they could also give positive feedback about labor pain and action and could start breastfeeding at an earlier stage when compared with those in the control group ( p < .05). Childbirth education classes increase the knowledge of pregnant women and positively contribute in pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum process.
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  2. 102

    Increasing Full Child Immunization Rates by Government Using an Innovative Computerized Immunization Due List in Rural India.

    Ganguly E; Gupta R; Widge A; Reddy RP; Balasubramanian K; Reddy PS

    Inquiry. 2018 Jan-Dec; 55:46958017751292.

    Increasing child vaccination coverage to 85% or more in rural India from the current level of 50% holds great promise for reducing infant and child mortality and improving health of children. We have tested a novel strategy called Rural Effective Affordable Comprehensive Health Care (REACH) in a rural population of more than 300 000 in Rajasthan and succeeded in achieving full immunization coverage of 88.7% among children aged 12 to 23 months in a short span of less than 2 years. The REACH strategy was first developed and successfully implemented in a demonstration project by SHARE INDIA in Medchal region of Andhra Pradesh, and was then replicated in Rajgarh block of Rajasthan in cooperation with Bhoruka Charitable Trust (private partners of Integrated Child Development Services and National Rural Health Mission health workers in Rajgarh). The success of the REACH strategy in both Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan suggests that it could be successfully adopted as a model to enhance vaccination coverage dramatically in other areas of rural India.
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  3. 103
    Peer Reviewed

    Nutritional Assessment of the Children of the Beta Israel Community in Ethiopia: A 2017 Update.

    Asres Alemie G; Eidelman AI

    Breastfeeding Medicine. 2018 Mar; 13(2):149-154.

    BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is a common phenomenon worldwide and a major public health problem, particularly in developing poorer countries like Ethiopia. Although malnutrition can affect any age group, children are at a higher risk and it is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to update and assess the nutritional status of children of the Beta Israel community in the Gondar area of Ethiopia. METHODS: This was a community-based cross-sectional anthropometrical study of all the children of the community age 0-60 months. A structured questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic data, nutritional history, and clinical parameters. Nutritional indices weight for age, height for age, and weight for height were used to define the nutritional status of the children. The 2006 World Health Organization (WHO) growth curves served as reference parameters. Statistical analysis included binary logistical regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 489 children, representing over 90% of the community's children were studied with the mean age and standard deviation of 36.5 and 18 months, respectively. The overall prevalence of malnutrition was found to be 39.1% with wasting, underweight, and stunting occurring in 22.1%, 26.2%, and 18.4% of the children, respectively. Severe wasting, severe underweight, and severe stunting occurred in 8.4%, 8.2% and 5.3% of the children, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that age was significantly associated with the occurrence of malnutrition with younger children being at a higher risk (p = 0.044). Gender of child, family income, maternal education, presence of illness in the month preceding data collection, and household size did not show any association with malnutrition prevalence. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of malnutrition as measured by stunting, underweight, and wasting has remained high among children younger than 5 years of the Beta Israel community in Gondar. Moreover, younger children were found to be more malnourished than older children.
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  4. 104
    Peer Reviewed

    Spatiotemporal heterogeneity of malnutrition indicators in children under 5 years of age in Bangladesh, 1999-2011.

    Hasan MT; Mamun AA; Williams GM; Soares Magalhaes RJ

    Public Health Nutrition. 2018 Apr; 21(5):857-867.

    OBJECTIVE: To examine changes in the spatial clustering of malnutrition in children under 5 years of age (under-5s) for the period 1999 to 2011 in Bangladesh. DESIGN: We used data from four nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted in 1999-2000, 2004, 2007 and 2011 in Bangladesh involving a total of 24 211 under-5s located in 1661 primary sampling units (PSU; geographical unit of analysis) throughout Bangladesh. The prevalence of stunting (height/length-for-age Z-score <-2), underweight (weight-for-age Z-score <-2) and wasting (weight-for-height/length Z-score <-2) at each PSU site and for each survey year were estimated based on the WHO child growth standard. The extent of spatial clustering was quantified using semivariograms. SETTING: Whole of Bangladesh. SUBJECTS: Children under 5 years of age. RESULTS: Our results demonstrate that in 1999-2000 most PSU throughout Bangladesh experienced stunting, underweight and wasting prevalence which exceeded the WHO thresholds. By 2011, this situation improved, although in two of the six divisions (Barisal and Sylhet) PSU still exhibited higher levels of malnutrition compared with other divisions of the country. The pattern of spatial clustering for stunting, underweight and wasting also changed between 1999 and 2011 both at national and sub-national (division) levels. CONCLUSIONS: We identified divisions where malnutrition indicators (stunting, underweight and wasting) remain highly clustered and other divisions where they are more widely spread in Bangladesh. This has important implications on how interventions for malnutrition need to be delivered (geographically targeted interventions v. random interventions) within each division of the country.
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  5. 105
    Peer Reviewed

    Upscaling Participatory Action and Videos for Agriculture and Nutrition (UPAVAN) trial comparing three variants of a nutrition-sensitive agricultural extension intervention to improve maternal and child nutritional outcomes in rural Odisha, India: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Kadiyala S; Prost A; Harris-Fry H; O'Hearn M; Pradhan R; Pradhan S; Mishra NK; Rath S; Nair N; Rath S; Tripathy P; Krishnan S; Koniz-Booher P; Danton H; Elbourne D; Sturgess J; Beaumont E; Haghparast-Bidgoli H; Skordis-Worrall J; Mohanty S; Upadhay A; Allen E

    Trials. 2018 Mar 9; 19(1):176.

    BACKGROUND: Maternal and child undernutrition have adverse consequences for pregnancy outcomes and child morbidity and mortality, and they are associated with low educational attainment, economic productivity as an adult, and human wellbeing. 'Nutrition-sensitive' agriculture programs could tackle the underlying causes of undernutrition. METHODS/DESIGN: This study is a four-arm cluster randomised controlled trial in Odisha, India. Interventions are as follows: (1) an agricultural extension platform of women's groups viewing and discussing videos on nutrition-sensitive agriculture (NSA) practices, and follow-up visits to women at home to encourage the adoption of new practices shown in the videos; (2) women's groups viewing and discussing videos on NSA and nutrition-specific practices, with follow-up visits; and (3) women's groups viewing and discussing videos on NSA and nutrition-specific practices combined with a cycle of Participatory Learning and Action meetings, with follow-up visits. All arms, including the control, receive basic nutrition training from government community frontline workers. Primary outcomes, assessed at baseline and 32 months after the start of the interventions, are (1) percentage of children aged 6-23 months consuming >/= 4 out of 7 food groups per day and (2) mean body mass index (BMI) (kg/m(2)) of non-pregnant, non-postpartum (gave birth > 42 days ago) mothers or female primary caregivers of children aged 0-23 months. Secondary outcomes are percentage of mothers consuming >/= 5 out of 10 food groups per day and percentage of children's weight-for-height z-score < -2 standard deviations (SD). The unit of randomisation is a cluster, defined as one or more villages with a combined minimum population of 800 residents. There are 37 clusters per arm, and outcomes will be assessed in an average of 32 eligible households per cluster. For randomisation, clusters are stratified by distance to nearest town (< 10 km or >/= 10 km), and low (< 30%), medium (30-70%), or high (> 70%) proportion of Scheduled Tribe or Scheduled Caste (disadvantaged) households. A process evaluation will assess the quality of implementation and mechanisms behind the intervention effects. A cost-consequence analysis will compare incremental costs and outcomes of the interventions. DISCUSSION: This trial will contribute evidence on the impacts of NSA extension through participatory, low-cost, video-based approaches on maternal and child nutrition and on whether integration with nutrition-specific goals and enhanced participatory approaches can increase these impacts. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN , ISRCTN65922679 . Registered on 21 December 2016.
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  6. 106
    Peer Reviewed

    Tubaramure, a Food-Assisted Integrated Health and Nutrition Program, Reduces Child Stunting in Burundi: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Intervention Trial.

    Leroy JL; Olney D; Ruel M

    Journal of Nutrition. 2018 Mar 1; 148(3):445-452.

    Background: Food-assisted maternal and child health and nutrition (FA-MCHN) programs are widely used to address undernutrition, but little is known about their effectiveness in improving child linear growth. Objective: We assessed the impact of Burundi's Tubaramure FA-MCHN program on linear growth. The program targeted women and their children during the first 1000 d and included 1) food rations, 2) strengthening of health services and promotion of their use, and 3) behavior change communication (BCC). A second objective was to assess the differential effect when varying the timing and duration of receiving food rations. Methods: We used a 4-arm, cluster-randomized controlled study to assess program impact with the use of cluster fixed-effects double-difference models with repeated cross-sectional data (baseline and follow-up 4 y later with approximately 3550 children in each round). Treatment arms received food rations (corn-soy blend and micronutrient-fortified vegetable oil) for the first 1000 d (T24), from pregnancy through the child reaching 18 mo (T18), or from birth through the child reaching 24 mo ["no food during pregnancy" (TNFP)]. All treatment arms received BCC for the first 1000 d. The control arm received no food rations or BCC. Results: Stunting (height-for-age z score <2 SDs) increased markedly from baseline to follow-up, but Tubaramure had a significant (P < 0.05) beneficial effect in the T24 [7.4 percentage points (pp); P < 0.05], T18 (5.7 pp; P < 0.05), and TNFP (4.6; P = 0.09) arms; the differences in effect across arms were not significant (P > 0.01). Secondary analyses showed that the effect was limited to children whose mother and head of household had some primary education and who lived in households with above-median assets. Conclusions: FA-MCHN programs are an effective development tool to improve child linear growth and can protect children from political and economic shocks in vulnerable countries such as Burundi. A better understanding of how to improve the nutritional status of children in the worst-off households is needed. This trial was registered at as NCT01072279.
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  7. 107
    Peer Reviewed

    Optimal dietary patterns designed from local foods to achieve maternal nutritional goals.

    Raymond J; Kassim N; Rose JW; Agaba M

    BMC Public Health. 2018 Apr 4; 18(1):451.

    BACKGROUND: Achieving nutritional requirements for pregnant and lactating mothers in rural households while maintaining the intake of local and culture-specific foods can be a difficult task. Deploying a linear goal programming approach can effectively generate optimal dietary patterns that incorporate local and culturally acceptable diets. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether a realistic and affordable diet that achieves nutritional goals for rural pregnant and lactating women can be formulated from locally available foods in Tanzania. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted to assess dietary intakes of 150 pregnant and lactating women using a weighed dietary record (WDR), 24 h dietary recalls and a 7-days food record. A market survey was also carried out to estimate the cost per 100 g of edible portion of foods that are frequently consumed in the study population. Dietary survey and market data were then used to define linear programming (LP) model parameters for diet optimisation. All LP analyses were done using linear program solver to generate optimal dietary patterns. RESULTS: Our findings showed that optimal dietary patterns designed from locally available foods would improve dietary adequacy for 15 and 19 selected nutrients in pregnant and lactating women, respectively, but inadequacies remained for iron, zinc, folate, pantothenic acid, and vitamin E, indicating that these are problem nutrients (nutrients that did not achieve 100% of their RNIs in optimised diets) in the study population. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that optimal use of local foods can improve dietary adequacy for rural pregnant and lactating women aged 19-50 years. However, additional cost-effective interventions are needed to ensure adequate intakes for the identified problem nutrients.
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  8. 108
    Peer Reviewed

    The "ComPAS Trial" combined treatment model for acute malnutrition: study protocol for the economic evaluation.

    Lelijveld N; Bailey J; Mayberry A; Trenouth L; N'Diaye DS; Haghparast-Bidgoli H; Puett C

    Trials. 2018 Apr 24; 19(1):252.

    BACKGROUND: Acute malnutrition is currently divided into severe (SAM) and moderate (MAM) based on level of wasting. SAM and MAM currently have separate treatment protocols and products, managed by separate international agencies. For SAM, the dose of treatment is allocated by the child's weight. A combined and simplified protocol for SAM and MAM, with a standardised dose of ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF), is being trialled for non-inferior recovery rates and may be more cost-effective than the current standard protocols for treating SAM and MAM. METHOD: This is the protocol for the economic evaluation of the ComPAS trial, a cluster-randomised controlled, non-inferiority trial that compares a novel combined protocol for treating uncomplicated acute malnutrition compared to the current standard protocol in South Sudan and Kenya. We will calculate the total economic costs of both protocols from a societal perspective, using accounting data, interviews and survey questionnaires. The incremental cost of implementing the combined protocol will be estimated, and all costs and outcomes will be presented as a cost-consequence analysis. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio will be calculated for primary and secondary outcome, if statistically significant. DISCUSSION: We hypothesise that implementing the combined protocol will be cost-effective due to streamlined logistics at clinic level, reduced length of treatment, especially for MAM, and reduced dosages of RUTF. The findings of this economic evaluation will be important for policymakers, especially given the hypothesised non-inferiority of the main health outcomes. The publication of this protocol aims to improve rigour of conduct and transparency of data collection and analysis. It is also intended to promote inclusion of economic evaluation in other nutrition intervention studies, especially for MAM, and improve comparability with other studies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN 30393230 , date: 16/03/2017.
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  9. 109
    Peer Reviewed

    Combined Protocol for Acute Malnutrition Study (ComPAS) in rural South Sudan and urban Kenya: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Bailey J; Lelijveld N; Marron B; Onyoo P; Ho LS; Manary M; Briend A; Opondo C; Kerac M

    Trials. 2018 Apr 24; 19(1):251.

    BACKGROUND: Acute malnutrition is a continuum condition, but severe and moderate forms are treated separately, with different protocols and therapeutic products, managed by separate United Nations agencies. The Combined Protocol for Acute Malnutrition Study (ComPAS) aims to simplify and unify the treatment of uncomplicated severe and moderate acute malnutrition (SAM and MAM) for children 6-59 months into one protocol in order to improve the global coverage, quality, continuity of care and cost-effectiveness of acute malnutrition treatment in resource-constrained settings. METHODS/DESIGN: This study is a multi-site, cluster randomized non-inferiority trial with 12 clusters in Kenya and 12 clusters in South Sudan. Participants are 3600 children aged 6-59 months with uncomplicated acute malnutrition. This study will evaluate the impact of a simplified and combined protocol for the treatment of SAM and MAM compared to the standard protocol, which is the national treatment protocol in each country. We will assess recovery rate as a primary outcome and coverage, defaulting, death, length of stay, average weekly weight gain and average weekly mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) gain as secondary outcomes. Recovery rate is defined across both treatment arms as MUAC >/=125 mm and no oedema for two consecutive visits. Per-protocol and intention-to-treat analyses will be conducted. DISCUSSION: If the combined protocol is shown to be non-inferior to the standard protocol, updating guidelines to use the combined protocol would eliminate the need for separate products, resources and procedures for MAM treatment. This would likely be more cost-effective, increase availability of services, enable earlier case finding and treatment before deterioration of MAM into SAM, promote better continuity of care and improve community perceptions of the programme. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN, ISRCTN30393230 . Registered on 16 March 2017.
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  10. 110
    Peer Reviewed

    Use of an electronic Partograph: feasibility and acceptability study in Zanzibar, Tanzania.

    Litwin LE; Maly C; Khamis AR; Hiner C; Zoungrana J; Mohamed K; Drake M; Machaku M; Njozi M; Muhsin SA; Kulindwa YK; Gomez PP

    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2018 May 9; 18(1):147.

    BACKGROUND: The ePartogram is a tablet-based application developed to improve care for women in labor by addressing documented challenges in partograph use. The application is designed to provide real-time decision support, improve data entry, and increase access to information for appropriate labor management. This study's primary objective was to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of ePartogram use in resource-constrained clinical settings. METHODS: The ePartogram was introduced at three facilities in Zanzibar, Tanzania. Following 3 days of training, skilled birth attendants (SBAs) were observed for 2 weeks using the ePartogram to monitor laboring women. During each observed shift, data collectors used a structured observation form to document SBA comfort, confidence, and ability to use the ePartogram. Results were analyzed by shift. Short interviews, conducted with SBAs (n = 82) after each of their first five ePartogram-monitored labors, detected differences over time. After the observation period, in-depth interviews were conducted (n = 15). A thematic analysis of interview transcripts was completed. RESULTS: Observations of 23 SBAs using the ePartogram to monitor 103 women over 84 shifts showed that the majority of SBAs (87-91%) completed each of four fundamental ePartogram tasks-registering a client, entering first and subsequent measurements, and navigating between screens-with ease or increasing ease on their first shift; this increased to 100% by the fifth shift. Nearly all SBAs (93%) demonstrated confidence and all SBAs demonstrated comfort in using the ePartogram by the fifth shift. SBAs expressed positive impressions of the ePartogram and found it efficient and easy to use, beginning with first client use. SBAs noted the helpfulness of auditory reminders (indicating that measurements were due) and visual alerts (signaling abnormal measurements). SBAs expressed confidence in their ability to interpret and act on these reminders and alerts. CONCLUSIONS: It is feasible and acceptable for SBAs to use the ePartogram to support labor management and care. With structured training and support during initial use, SBAs quickly became competent and confident in ePartogram use. Qualitative findings revealed that SBAs felt the ePartogram improved timeliness of care and supported decision-making. These findings point to the ePartogram's potential to improve quality of care in resource-constrained labor and delivery settings.
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  11. 111
    Peer Reviewed

    Companionship during facility-based childbirth: results from a mixed-methods study with recently delivered women and providers in Kenya.

    Afulani P; Kusi C; Kirumbi L; Walker D

    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2018 May 10; 18(1):150.

    BACKGROUND: Research suggests that birth companionship, and in particular, continuous support during labor and delivery, can improve women's childbirth experience and birth outcomes. Yet, little is known about the extent to which birth companionship is practiced, as well as women and providers' perceptions of it in low-resource settings. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and determinants of birth companionship, and women and providers' perceptions of it in health facilities in a rural County in Western Kenya. METHODS: We used quantitative and qualitative data from 3 sources: surveys with 877 women, 8 focus group discussions with 58 women, and in-depth interviews with 49 maternity providers in the County. Eligible women were 15 to 49 years old and delivered in the 9 weeks preceding the study. RESULTS: About 88% of women were accompanied by someone from their social network to the health facility during their childbirth, with 29% accompanied by a male partner. Sixty-seven percent were allowed continuous support during labor, but only 29% were allowed continuous support during delivery. Eighteen percent did not desire companionship during labor and 63% did not desire it during delivery. Literate, wealthy, and employed women, as well as women who delivered in health centers and did not experience birth complications, were more likely to be allowed continuous support during labor. Most women desired a companion during labor to attend to their needs. Reasons for not desiring companions included embarrassment and fear of gossip and abuse. Most providers recommended birth companionship, but stated that it is often not possible due to privacy concerns and other reasons mainly related to distrust of companions. Providers perceive companions' roles more in terms of assisting them with non-clinical tasks than providing emotional support to women. CONCLUSION: Although many women desire birth companionship, their desires differ across the labor and delivery continuum, with most desiring companionship during labor but not at the time of delivery. Most, however, don't get continuous support during labor and delivery. Interventions with women, companions, and providers, as well as structural and health system interventions, are needed to promote continuous support during labor and delivery.
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  12. 112
    Peer Reviewed

    Low birth weight among term newborns in Wolaita Sodo town, South Ethiopia: a facility based cross-sectional study.

    Kastro S; Demissie T; Yohannes B

    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2018 May 11; 18(1):160.

    BACKGROUND: In low income countries, many low birth weight newborns often miss the chance for survival sooner or later. Others who survive would also face increased risks in later life. Though not adequately documented in Ethiopia, maternal factors pose the main risk. This study was aimed to estimate the proportion of low birth weight among term singletons without congenital malformations and factors associated with it in Wolaita Sodo town in South Ethiopia. METHODS: We did a facility based survey involving 432 postpartum women with their term newborns. Data was collected through face to face interview from March to April in 2016. The outcome measure was newborn birth weight. Bivariate logistic regression was applied to look for crude associations. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to adjust for potential confounders to identify independent predictors. Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), and statistical significance at P < 0.05 were reported. RESULTS: The proportion of term low birth weight was 8.1% in the study area. Women who had less education (AOR = 6.23; 95% CI = 1.68, 23.1), house wives (AOR = 5.85; 95% CI = 1.40, 24.3) and not frequently consuming fruits during pregnancy (AOR 11.3; 95% CI = 1.98, 64.9) had a higher risk of having term low birth weight newborns. We documented a lesser odds of those from rural settings to have low birth weight newborns as compared to their counter urban equivalents (AOR = 0.06; 95% CI = 0.006, 0.6). CONCLUSIONS: Dietary counselling to pregnant mothers specific diet and nutrition including fruit diets in particular might contribute to reduce the risk of term low birth weight. Better education might have enabled women to prefer diets and their job engagements might also have capacitated them to decide on dietary preferences.
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  13. 113
    Peer Reviewed

    The effects of centering pregnancy on maternal and fetal outcomes in northern Nigeria; a prospective cohort analysis.

    Eluwa GI; Adebajo SB; Torpey K; Shittu O; Abdu-Aguye S; Pearlman D; Bawa U; Olorukooba A; Khamofu H; Chiegli R

    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2018 May 11; 18(1):158.

    BACKGROUND: Maternal and infant mortality remains high in Nigeria primarily due to low use of skilled birth attendants. Huge disparities exist between southern and northen Nigeria on use of skilled birth attendants with south significantly higher than the north. We assessed the effect of centering pregnancy group (CPG) antenatal care on the uptake of antenatal care (ANC), facility delivery and immunization rates for infants in Kano state. METHODS: Between December 2012 and May 2014, pregnant women with similar sociodemographics and obstetric history were enrolled into intervention (CPG) and control groups and followed up prospectively. Chi-square tests were conducted to compare the differences between the intervention and the control groups with respect to background characteristics and intervention outcomes. Logistic regression was used to measure the associations between CPG and uptake of services for mother-baby pairs in care. RESULTS: A total of 517 (260 in the control group and 257 in the CPG) pregnant women enrolled and participated in the study. Thirty-six percent of women in the control group attended ANC at least once in 2nd and 3nd trimester compared to 49% of respondents in the CPG (p < 0.01). Health facility delivery was higher among CPG (13% vs. 8%; p < 0.01). When controlled for age, number of previous pregnancies, number of term deliveries, number of children alive and occupation of respondent or their spouses, respondents who participated in the CPGs compared to those who did not, were more likely to attend at least one antenatal care (ANC) session in the third trimester [adjusted risk ratio (ARR):1.52; 95% CI:1.36-1.69], more likely to immunize their babies at six weeks [ARR: 2.23; 95% CI: 1.16-4.29] and fourteen weeks [ARR: 3.46; 95% CI: 1.19-10.01] and more likely to use health services [ARR: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.06-2.13]. CONCLUSION: Centering or group pregnancy showed a positive effect on the use of antenatal services, facility delivery and postnatal services and thus is a promising intervention to increase uptake of maternal health care services in northern Nigeria. The low facility delivery remains a cause for alarm and requires further investigation to improve facility delivery in northern Nigeria.
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  14. 114
    Peer Reviewed

    Impact of vaccine stock-outs on infant vaccination coverage: a hospital-based survey from South Africa.

    Burnett RJ; Mmoledi G; Ngcobo NJ; Dochez C; Seheri LM; Mphahlele MJ

    International Health. 2018 Sep 1; 10(5):376-381.

    Introduction: National population-based immunization coverage surveys provide data for validating official administrative coverage figures. However, these costly and logistically challenging surveys are conducted infrequently. This hospital-based records review determined coverage of birth-dose vaccines, fully immunized under 1-y-old coverage (FIC) of 12- to 59-mo-old children; and the reasons for missed vaccinations. Methods: Rotavirus surveillance in South Africa is based on under-5-y-old children being treated for diarrhoea, and includes photocopying the official vaccination document and collecting data on reasons for missed vaccinations. These data were captured from all 508 records collected from 2011 to 2014, and subjected to descriptive statistical analysis. Results: Bacille Calmette Guerin coverage was 99%; oral polio vaccine birth dose (OPV(0)) coverage was 99%. Coverage for 12- to 59-mo-olds ranged from 75% for the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine third dose to 99% for OPV(0). Several instances of subsequent doses being recorded without prior doses being received resulted in a FIC of 55%. In total, 207 vaccinations were missed by 88 children. Vaccine stock-outs were responsible for 62% of missed vaccinations. Conclusions: Efforts to improve vaccine stock management at facility and district levels should be implemented, and should include vaccinator training and supervision to eliminate vaccine stock-outs and missed vaccination opportunities.
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  15. 115
    Peer Reviewed

    Caesarean section audit to improve quality of care in a rural referral hospital in Tanzania.

    Dekker L; Houtzager T; Kilume O; Horogo J; van Roosmalen J; Nyamtema AS

    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2018 May 15; 18(1):164.

    BACKGROUND: Caesarean section (CS) is often a life-saving procedure, but can also lead to serious complications, even more so in low-resource settings. Therefore unnecessary CS should be avoided and optimal circumstances for vaginal delivery should be created. In this study, we aim to audit indications for Caesarean sections and improve decision-making and obstetric management. METHODS: Audit of all cases of CS performed from January to August 2013 was performed in a rural referral hospital in Tanzania. The study period was divided in three audit blocks; retrospective (before auditing), prospective 1 and prospective 2. A local audit panel (LP) and an external auditor (EA) judged if obstetric management was adequate and indications were appropriate or if CS could have been prevented and yet retain good pregnancy outcome. Furthermore, changes in modes of deliveries, overall pregnancy outcome and decision-to-delivery interval were monitored. RESULTS: During the study period there were 1868 deliveries. Of these, 403 (21.6%) were Caesarean sections. The proportions of unjustified CS prior to introduction of audit were as high as 34 and 75%, according to the respective judgments of LP and EA. Following introduction of audit, the proportions of unjustified CS decreased to 23% (p = 0.29) and 52% (p = 0.01) according to LP and EA respectively. However, CS rate did not change (20.2 to 21.7%), assisted vacuum delivery rate did not increase (3.9 to 1.8%) and median decision-to-delivery interval was 83 min (range 10 - 390 min). CONCLUSIONS: Although this is a single center study, these findings suggest that unnecessary Caesarean sections exist at an alarming rate even in referral hospitals and suggest that a vast number can be averted by introducing a focused CS audit system. Our findings indicate that CS audit is a useful tool and, if well implemented, can enhance rational use of resources, improve decision-making and harmonise practice among care providers.
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  16. 116
    Peer Reviewed

    A qualitative study about the gendered experiences of motherhood and perinatal mortality in mountain villages of Nepal: implications for improving perinatal survival.

    Paudel M; Javanparast S; Dasvarma G; Newman L

    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2018 May 15; 18(1):163.

    BACKGROUND: We aim to examine the gendered contexts of poor perinatal survival in the remote mountain villages of Nepal. The study setting comprised two remote mountain villages from a mid-western mountain district of Nepal that ranks lowest on the Human Development Index (0.304), and is reported as having the lowest child survival rates in the country. METHODS: The findings are taken from a larger study of perinatal survival in remote mountain villages of Nepal, conducted through a qualitative methodological approach within a framework of social constructionist and critical theoretical perspectives. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with 42 women and their families, plus a range of healthcare providers (nurses/auxiliary nurses, female health volunteers, support staff, Auxiliary Health Worker and a traditional healer) and other stakeholders from February to June, 2015. Data were analysed with a comprehensive coding process utilising the thematic analysis technique. RESULTS: The social construction of gender is one of the key factors influencing poor perinatal survival in the villages in this study. The key emerging themes from the qualitative data are: (1) Gendered social construct and vulnerability for poor perinatal survival: child marriages, son preference and repeated child bearing; (2) Pregnancy and childbirth in intra-familial dynamics of relationships and power; and (3) Perception of birth as a polluted event: birth in Gotha (cowshed) and giving birth alone. CONCLUSIONS: Motherhood among women of a low social position is central to women and their babies experiencing vulnerabilities related to perinatal survival in the mountain villages. Gendered constructions along the continuum from pre-pregnancy to postnatal (girl settlement, a daughter-in-law, ritual pollution about mother and child) create challenges to ensuring perinatal survival in these villages. It is imperative that policies and programmes consider such a context to develop effective working strategies for sustained reduction of future perinatal deaths.
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  17. 117
    Peer Reviewed

    Uptake of skilled attendance along the continuum of care in rural Western Kenya: selected analysis from Global Health initiative survey-2012.

    Mwangi W; Gachuno O; Desai M; Obor D; Were V; Odhiambo F; Nyaguara A; Laserson KF

    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2018 May 16; 18(1):175.

    BACKGROUND: Examining skilled attendance throughout pregnancy, delivery and immediate postnatal period is proxy indicator on the progress towards reduction of maternal and neonatal mortality in developing countries. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional baseline survey of households of mothers with at least 1 child under-5 years in 2012 within the KEMRI/CDC health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) area in rural western Kenya. RESULTS: Out of 8260 mother-child pairs, data on antenatal care (ANC) in the most recent pregnancy was obtained for 89% (n = 8260); 97% (n = 7387) reported attendance. Data on number of ANC visits was available for 89% (n = 7140); 52% (n = 6335) of mothers reported >/=4 ANC visits. Data on gestation month at first ANC was available for 94% (n = 7140) of mothers; 14% (n = 6690) reported first visit was in1(st)trimester (0-12 weeks), 73% in 2nd trimester (14-28 weeks) and remaining 13% in third trimester. Forty nine percent (n = 8259) of mothers delivered in a Health Facility (HF), 48% at home and 3% en route to HF. Forty percent (n = 7140) and 63% (n = 4028) of mothers reporting ANC attendance and HF delivery respectively also reported receiving postnatal care (PNC). About 36% (n = 8259) of mothers reported newborn assessment (NBA). Sixty eight percent (n = 3966) of mothers that delivered at home reported taking newborn for HF check-up, with only 5% (n = 2693) doing so within 48 h of delivery. Being /=4 ANC visits (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.8-2.2), were strongly associated with HF delivery. The continuum of care was such that 97% (n = 7387) mothers reported ANC attendance, 49% reported both ANC and HF delivery attendance, 34% reported ANC, HF delivery and PNC attendance and only 18% reported ANC, HF delivery, PNC and NBA attendance. CONCLUSION: Uptake of services drastically declined from antenatal to postnatal period, along the continuum of care. Age and education were key determinants of uptake.
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  18. 118
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    Seroprevalence of HIV, HTLV, CMV, HBV and rubella virus infections in pregnant adolescents who received care in the city of Belem, Para, Northern Brazil.

    Guerra AB; Siravenha LQ; Laurentino RV; Feitosa RNM; Azevedo VN; Vallinoto ACR; Ishak R; Machado LFA

    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2018 May 16; 18(1):169.

    BACKGROUND: Prenatal tests are important for prevention of vertical transmission of various infectious agents. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), rubella virus and vaccination coverage against HBV in pregnant adolescents who received care in the city of Belem, Para, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed with 324 pregnant adolescents from 2009 to 2010. After the interview and blood collection, the patients were screened for antibodies and/or antigens against HIV-1/2, HTLV-1/2, CMV, rubella virus and HBV. The epidemiological variables were demonstrated using descriptive statistics with the G, chi(2) and Fisher exact tests. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 15.8 years, and the majority (65.4%) had less than 6 years of education. The mean age at first intercourse was 14.4 years, and 60.8% reported having a partner aged between 12 and 14 years. The prevalence of HIV infection was 0.3%, and of HTLV infection was 0.6%. Regarding HBV, 0.6% of the participants had acute infection, 9.9% had a previous infection, 16.7% had vaccine immunity and 72.8% were susceptible to infection. The presence of anti-HBs was greater in adolescent between 12 and 14 years old (28.8%) while the anti-HBc was greater in adolescent between 15 and 18 years old (10.3%). Most of the adolescents presented the IgG antibody to CMV (96.3%) and rubella (92.3%). None of the participants had acute rubella infection, and 2.2% had anti-CMV IgM. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first report of the seroepidemiology of infectious agents in a population of pregnant adolescents in the Northern region of Brazil. Most of the adolescents had low levels of education, were susceptible to HBV infection and had IgG antibodies to CMV and rubella virus. The prevalence of HBV, HIV and HTLV was similar to that reported in other regions of Brazil. However, the presence of these agents in this younger population reinforces the need for good prenatal follow-up and more comprehensive vaccination campaigns against HBV due to the large number of women susceptible to the virus.
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  19. 119
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    Trends and factors associated with early initiation of breastfeeding in Namibia: analysis of the Demographic and Health Surveys 2000-2013.

    Ndirangu MN; Gatimu SM; Mwinyi HM; Kibiwott DC

    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2018 May 16; 18(1):171.

    BACKGROUND: Early initiation of breastfeeding (EIBF) lowers the risk for all-cause mortality in babies, including those with low birth weight. However, rates of neonatal mortality and delayed initiation of breastfeeding remain high in most low- and middle-income countries. This study aimed to assess the trends and factors associated with EIBF in Namibia from 2000 to 2013. METHODS: An analysis of EIBF trends was conducted using data from three Namibia Demographic Health Surveys. The present sample included singleton children younger than 2-years from 2000 (n = 1655), 2006-2007 (n = 2152) and 2013 (n = 2062) surveys. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse respondents' demographic, socioeconomic and obstetric characteristics. Factors associated with EIBF were assessed using univariate analysis and further evaluated using multivariable logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: EIBF significantly decreased from 82.5% (confidence interval [CI]: 79.5-85.0) in 2000 to 74.9% (72.5-77.2) in 2013. Factors associated with EIBF in 2000 were urban residence (adjusted odds ratio 0.58, 95% CI: 0.36-0.93), poorer household wealth index (1.82, 1.05-3.17), lack of antenatal care (0.14, 0.03-0.81), small birth size (0.38, 0.24-0.63) and large birth size (0.51, 0.37-0.79). In 2013, factors associated with EIBF were maternal age of 15-19 years (2.28, 1.22-4.24), vaginal delivery (2.74, 1.90-3.93), married mothers (1.57, 1.16-2.14), delivery assistance from health professionals (3.67, 1.23-10.9) and birth order of fourth or above (1.52, 1.03-2.26). CONCLUSIONS: Namibia has experienced a declining trend in EIBF rates from 2000 to 2013. Factors associated with EIBF differed between 2000 and 2013. The present findings highlight the importance of continued commitment to addressing neonatal health challenges and strengthening implementation of interventions to increase EIBF in Namibia.
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  20. 120
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    Postnatal care utilization among urban women in northern Ethiopia: cross-sectional survey.

    Gebrehiwot G; Medhanyie AA; Gidey G; Abrha K

    BMC Women's Health. 2018 May 30; 18(1):78.

    BACKGROUND: Postnatal care service enables health professionals to identify post-delivery problems including potential complications for the mother with her baby and to provide treatments promptly. In Ethiopia, postnatal care service is made accessible to all women for free however the utilization of the service is very low. This study assessed the utilization of postnatal care services of urban women and the factors associated in public health facilities in Mekelle city, Tigrai Region, Northern Ethiopia. METHODS: A facility based cross sectional study design was used to assess post natal service utilization. Using simple random sampling 367 women who visited maternal and child health clinics in Mekelle city for postnatal care services during January 27 to April 2014 were selected. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS Version 20.0 software. A binary and multivariable logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated with the outcome variables. P-value less than 0.05 is used to declare statistical significance. RESULTS: The prevalence of women who utilized postnatal care service was low (32.2%). Women who were private employees and business women were more likely to utilize postnatal care services (AOR = 6.46, 95% CI: 1.91-21.86) and (3.35, 95% CI: 1.10-10.19) respectively compared to house wives., Women who had history of one pregnancy were more likely to utilize the service (AOR = 3.19, 95% CI: 1.06-9.57) compared to women who had history of four and above pregnancies. Women who had knowledge of postnatal care service were also more likely to utilize postnatal care service (AOR = 14.46, 95% CI: 7.55-27.75) than women who lacked knowledge about the services. CONCLUSIONS: Postnatal care utilization in the study area is low. Knowledge on postnatal care services and occupation of women had positive impact on postnatal care service utilization. The Mekelle city administration health office and other stakeholders should support and encourage urban health extension workers and health facilities to strengthen providing health education to improve the knowledge of the women about the importance of postnatal care services.
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  21. 121
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    Strengthening intrapartum and immediate newborn care to reduce morbidity and mortality of preterm infants born in health facilities in Migori County, Kenya and Busoga Region, Uganda: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Otieno P; Waiswa P; Butrick E; Namazzi G; Achola K; Santos N; Keating R; Lester F; Walker D

    Trials. 2018 Jun 5; 19(1):313.

    BACKGROUND: Preterm birth (birth before 37 weeks of gestation) and its complications are the leading contributors to neonatal and under-5 mortality. The majority of neonatal deaths in Kenya and Uganda occur during the intrapartum and immediate postnatal period. This paper describes our study protocol for implementing and evaluating a package of facility-based interventions to improve care during this critical window. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a pair-matched, cluster randomized controlled trial across 20 facilities in Eastern Uganda and Western Kenya. The intervention facilities receive four components: (1) strengthening of routine data collection and data use activities; (2) implementation of the WHO Safe Childbirth Checklist modified for preterm birth; (3) PRONTO simulation training and mentoring to strengthen intrapartum and immediate newborn care; and (4) support of quality improvement teams. The control facilities receive both data strengthening and introduction of the modified checklist. The primary outcome for this study is 28-day mortality rate among preterm infants. The denominator will include all live births and fresh stillbirths weighing greater than 1000 g and less than 2500 g; all live births and fresh stillbirths weighing between 2501 and 3000 g with a documented gestational age less than 37 weeks. DISCUSSION: The results of this study will inform interventions to improve personnel and facility capacity to respond to preterm labor and delivery, as well as care for the preterm infant. TRIAL REGISTRATION:, ID: NCT03112018 . Registered on 13 April 2017.
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  22. 122
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    Parents' and healthcare professionals' experiences of care after stillbirth in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-summary.

    Shakespeare C; Merriel A; Bakhbakhi D; Baneszova R; Barnard K; Lynch M; Storey C; Blencowe H; Boyle F; Flenady V; Gold K; Horey D; Mills T; Siassakos D

    BJOG. 2019 Jan; 126(1):12-21.

    BACKGROUND: Stillbirth has a profound impact on women, families, and healthcare workers. The burden is highest in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). There is need for respectful and supportive care for women, partners, and families after bereavement. OBJECTIVE: To perform a qualitative meta-summary of parents' and healthcare professionals' experiences of care after stillbirth in LMICs. SEARCH STRATEGY: Search terms were formulated by identifying all synonyms, thesaurus terms, and variations for stillbirth. Databases searched were AMED, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, BNI, CINAHL. SELECTION CRITERIA: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed method studies that addressed parents' or healthcare professionals' experience of care after stillbirth in LMICs. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Studies were screened, and data extracted in duplicate. Data were analysed using the Sandelowski meta-summary technique that calculates frequency and intensity effect sizes (FES/IES). MAIN RESULTS: In all, 118 full texts were screened, and 34 studies from 17 countries were included. FES range was 15-68%. Most studies had IES 1.5-4.5. Women experience a broad range of manifestations of grief following stillbirth, which may not be recognised by healthcare workers or in their communities. Lack of recognition exacerbates negative experiences of stigmatisation, blame, devaluation, and loss of social status. Adequately developed health systems, with trained and supported staff, are best equipped to provide the support and information that women want after stillbirth. CONCLUSIONS: Basic interventions could have an immediate impact on the experiences of women and their families after stillbirth. Examples include public education to reduce stigma, promoting the respectful maternity care agenda, and investigating stillbirth appropriately. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Reducing stigma, promoting respectful care and investigating stillbirth have a positive impact after stillbirth for women and families in LMICs. (c) 2018 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
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  23. 123
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    Associations between improved care during the second stage of labour and maternal and neonatal health outcomes in a rural hospital in Bangladesh.

    Pervin J; Aktar S; Nu UT; Rahman M; Rahman A

    Midwifery. 2018 Nov; 66:30-35.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of care in the second stage of labour with a package of interventions that included (1) maintaining the birthing position according to the woman's choice, (2) adopting a spontaneous pushing technique and (3) using a support person, to reduce maternal and neonatal complications. DESIGN: Used the data collected from two cohorts- before and after an initiative to improve care during the second stage of labour. SETTING: A rural hospital in Bangladesh where 90-100 deliveries are conducted monthly and cesarean section provision is not available. PARTICIPANTS: One thousand and fifty-one singleton pregnancies who attended the hospital for giving birth in the first stage of labour before full dilatation of the cervix and with cephalic presentation. MEASUREMENTS AND FINDINGS: Data were collected through a structured checklist and questionnaire completed by research assistants; and also retrieved from hospital case record files, and the ongoing demographic surveillance system database. Coverage of adopting the upright or lateral position in the post-intervention period increased to 76% from about 1% in the pre-intervention period, and the spontaneous pushing technique increased to 97% from 77% in the same period. The odds of combined maternal and neonatal complications decreased by 46% between pre- and post-intervention periods (odds ratio: 0.54, 95% confidence interval: 0.43-0.70). Frequency of episiotomy (from 43% to 29%, P<0.001), cervical tear (3.8% to 1.5%, P=0.02), and median blood loss (200ml to 150ml; P<0.001) were reduced significantly in the same period. No significant associations were observed in perineal tear or birth asphyxia occurrences. KEY CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The study suggests that there is a beneficial effect of care during the second stage of labour with a package of interventions in reducing maternal and neonatal complications, particularly in reducing the frequency of episiotomy, cervical tear, and blood loss during delivery. The preferred choice of posture during giving birth, adopting a spontaneous pushing technique and continuous presence of support person during the second stage of labour may be encouraged for better health outcomes. Copyright (c) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  24. 124
    Peer Reviewed

    Nurse and physician reflections on the application of a quality standards training program to reduce maternal mortality.

    Maloney SI; Siahpush M; Dinkel D; Farazi PA; Jose J; Dutta R

    Midwifery. 2018 Nov; 66:155-160.

    OBJECTIVE: High rates of maternal mortality persist in Low and Middle Income countries, despite increasing rates of facility-based births, suggesting a need to focus on quality of maternity care. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate provider perspectives on the implementation of material taught during an evidence-based medical education session aimed at reducing common causes of maternal death in government hospitals in India. DESIGN: Several months after the training, labor room nurses and physicians from twenty-two hospitals participated in semi-structured focus group discussions. SETTING: Training sessions were held in an off-site location in each of fourteen districts across Kerala, India. PARTICIPANTS: Nurses and physicians working in labor and delivery wards within government hospitals. INTERVENTION: Participants were trained on evidence-based practices to treat and prevent common causes of maternal death. Training was a combination of lecture and hands-on practice, conducted over a single working day in a classroom setting. MEASUREMENTS AND FINDINGS: Main items of discussion were challenges to implementing material taught in the training session and identification of successful strategies to adopt the recommended standards of care. Primary barriers to implementation of quality standards were provider unwillingness to apply new techniques, inadequate infrastructure, challenges with staffing capacity and lack of required materials and equipment. Facilitators to implementing standards of care included staff motivation, supportive leadership and co-training of nurses and doctors. KEY CONCLUSIONS: In international settings, clinical uptake of evidence-based material taught in a classroom format may differ by physician attitude and may be moderated by external factors such as infrastructure quality and equipment availability. In some circumstances, highly motivated staff may overcome external barriers through effort and persistence. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Continuing medical education aimed to improve utilization of evidence-based maternity care in low- and middle-income countries may have limited effect without complementary support from hospital administration and provision of adequate infrastructure, equipment and materials to support evidence-based practice. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  25. 125
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    Effects of family conversation on health care practices in Ethiopia: a propensity score matched analysis.

    Emaway Altaye D; Karim AM; Betemariam W; Fesseha Zemichael N; Shigute T; Scheelbeek P

    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2018 Sep 24; 18(Suppl 1):372.

    BACKGROUND: Maternal and newborn mortality rates in Ethiopia are among the highest in sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of deaths take place during childbirth or within the following 48 h. Therefore, ensuring facility deliveries with emergency obstetric and newborn care services available and immediate postnatal follow-up are key strategies to increase survival. In early 2014, the Family Conversation was implemented in 115 rural districts in Ethiopia, covering about 17 million people. It aimed to reduce maternal and newborn mortality by promoting institutional delivery, early postnatal care and immediate newborn care practices. More than 6000 Health Extension Workers were trained to initiate home-based Family Conversations with pregnant women and key household decision-makers. These conversations included discussions on birth preparedness, postpartum and newborn care needs to engage key household stakeholders in supporting women during their pregnancy, labor and postpartum periods. This paper examines the effects of the Family Conversation strategy on maternal and neonatal care practices. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from a representative sample of 4684 women with children aged 0-11 months from 115 districts collected between December 2014 and January 2015. We compared intrapartum and newborn care practices related to the most recent childbirth, between those who reported having participated in a Family Conversation during pregnancy, and those who had not. Propensity score matched analysis was used to estimate average treatment effects of the Family Conversation strategy on intrapartum and newborn care practices, including institutional delivery, early postnatal and immediate breastfeeding. RESULTS: About 17% of the respondents reported having had a Family Conversation during their last pregnancy. Average treatment effects of 7, 12, 9 and 16 percentage-points respectively were found for institutional deliveries, early postnatal care, clean cord care and thermal care of the newborn (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: We found evidence that Family Conversation, and specifically the involvement of household members who were major decision-makers, was associated with better intrapartum and newborn care practices. This study adds to the evidence base that involving husbands and mothers-in-law, as well as pregnant women, in behavior change communication interventions could be critical for improving maternal and newborn care and therewith lowering mortality rates.
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