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  1. 76
    Peer Reviewed

    The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of 3- vs. 6-monthly dispensing of antiretroviral treatment (ART) for stable HIV patients in community ART-refill groups in Zimbabwe: study protocol for a pragmatic, cluster-randomized trial.

    Fatti G; Ngorima-Mabhena N; Chirowa F; Chirwa B; Takarinda K; Tafuma TA; Mahachi N; Chikodzore R; Nyadundu S; Ajayi CA; Mutasa-Apollo T; Mugurungi O; Mothibi E; Hoffman RM; Grimwood A

    Trials. 2018 Jan 29; 19(1):79.

    BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa is the world region with the greatest number of people eligible to receive antiretroviral treatment (ART). Less frequent dispensing of ART and community-based ART-delivery models are potential strategies to reduce the load on overburdened healthcare facilities and reduce the barriers for patients to access treatment. However, no large-scale trials have been conducted investigating patient outcomes or evaluating the cost-effectiveness of extended ART-dispensing intervals within community ART-delivery models. This trial will assess the clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of providing ART refills on a 3 vs. a 6-monthly basis within community ART-refill groups (CARGs) for stable patients in Zimbabwe. METHODS: In this pragmatic, three-arm, parallel, unblinded, cluster-randomized non-inferiority trial, 30 clusters (healthcare facilities and associated CARGs) are allocated using stratified randomization in a 1:1:1 ratio to either (1) ART refills supplied 3-monthly from the health facility (control arm), (2) ART refills supplied 3-monthly within CARGs, or (3) ART refills supplied 6-monthly within CARGs. A CARG consists of 6-12 stable patients who meet in the community to receive ART refills and who provide support to one another. Stable adult ART patients with a baseline viral load < 1000 copies/ml will be invited to participate (1920 participants per arm). The primary outcome is the proportion of participants alive and retained in care 12 months after enrollment. Secondary outcomes (measured at 12 and 24 months) are the proportions achieving virological suppression, average provider cost per participant, provider cost per participant retained, cost per participant retained with virological suppression, and average patient-level costs to access treatment. Qualitative research will assess the acceptability of extended ART-dispensing intervals within CARGs to both providers and patients, and indicators of potential facility-level decongestion due to the interventions will be assessed. DISCUSSION: Cost-effective health system models that sustain high levels of patient retention are urgently needed to accommodate the large numbers of stable ART patients in sub-Saharan Africa. This will be the first trial to evaluate extended ART-dispensing intervals within a community-based ART distribution model, and results are intended to inform national and regional policy regarding their potential benefits to both the healthcare system and patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION:, ID: NCT03238846 . Registered on 27 July 2017.
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  2. 77
    Peer Reviewed

    HIV prevalence among female sex workers in Guigang City, Guangxi, China: an 8-year consecutive cross-sectional study.

    Lai J; Qin C; Nehl EJ; Jiang J; Huang Y; Liang B; Xu Y; Huang J; Xu Z; Ning C; Liao Y; Zang N; Wei W; Qin F; Yu J; Ye L; Qin X; Liang H

    BMC Public Health. 2018 Apr 4; 18(1):450.

    BACKGROUND: Female sex workers (FSW) are a population that are at high risk for HIV infection, and their HIV/AIDS knowledge levels and sexual behaviors are of concern. This study describes changes in HIV prevalence and factors associated among female sex workers in Guigang City, Guangxi, one of the highest HIV prevalence areas in China. METHODS: Data were derived from an annual cross-sectional venue-based survey, 2008 to 2015, in the form of sentinel surveillance. The participants were recruited using cluster sampling. FSW aged 16 years and above who completed a questionnaire and HIV testing. Both descriptive and multi-level analyses were used to explore factors associated with changes in HIV prevalence. RESULTS: Seven thousand four hundred ninety-six FSW were recruited in this study. HIV prevalence among FSW in Guigang City fell into two periods, one with an increasing trend (2008-2011) and one with a decline (2012-2015). Differences between these time periods included age, relationship status, HIV knowledge, consistent condom use, lifetime illicit drug use, history of sexually transmitted infection in the past year, HIV testing, receipt of a condom distribution and education program or HIV counseling and testing, and peer education services. CONCLUSIONS: Since 2012, a reduction in HIV prevalence among FSW in Guigang City has been observed. The decline of HIV prevalence was associated with coinciding changes in demographic characteristics of FSW, improvement of HIV knowledge and safer sexual behaviors, and a program that promotes condom use, HIV counseling & testing, and peer education.
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  3. 78
    Peer Reviewed

    Stigma and negative self-perceptions of young people living with human immunodeficiency virus in Bandung, Indonesia: a case series.

    Aggarwal S; Yu L; Hasjim B; Lee DH; Kim E; Lee JB; Lee K; Tse C; Anshus A; Yu AR; Louthan M; Keown T; Gabriel C; Diamond C

    International Health. 2018 Sep 1; 10(5):401-403.

    Background: Young people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) (PLWA) are at risk for HIV stigma. Methods: The HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument for PLWA was administered to 36 young PLWA across six clinics in Bandung, Indonesia, to assess the fear of contagion (FC), verbal abuse (VA), social isolation (SI), workplace stigma (WS), health care neglect (HCN) and negative self-perception (NSP). Results: The median scores for FC, VA, SI, WS and HCN were all 0 while the median score for NSP was 4. In the last 3 months approximately 45% of surveyed PLWA felt they did not deserve to live and 64% felt completely worthless. Conclusions: While these results are preliminary, access to mental health services should be a priority in the clinics that provide antiretroviral therapies.
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  4. 79
    Peer Reviewed

    Physician-delivered motivational interviewing to improve adherence and retention in care among challenging HIV-infected patients in Argentina (COPA2): study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Sued O; Cassetti I; Cecchini D; Cahn P; de Murillo LB; Weiss SM; Mandell LN; Soni M; Jones DL

    Trials. 2018 Jul 24; 19(1):396.

    BACKGROUND: "Challenging" HIV-infected patients, those not retained in treatment, represent a critical focus for positive prevention, as linkage to care, early initiation of antiretroviral therapy, adherence and retention in treatment facilitate viral suppression, thus optimizing health and reducing HIV transmission. Argentina was one of the first Latin American countries to guarantee HIV prevention, diagnosis and comprehensive care services, including antiretroviral medication, which removed cost and access as barriers. Yet, dropout occurs at every stage of the HIV continuum. An estimated 110,000 individuals are HIV-infected in Argentina; of these, 70% have been diagnosed and 54% were linked to care. However, only 36% have achieved viral suppression and 31% of those diagnosed delayed entry to care. To achieve meaningful reductions in HIV infection at the community level, innovative strategies must be developed to re-engage patients. Motivational Interviewing (MI) is a patient-centered approach and has been used by therapists in Central and South America to enhance motivation and commitment in substance use and risk reduction. Our pilot feasibility study utilized culturally tailored MI in physicians to target patients not retained in treatment in public and private clinics in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Results demonstrated that a physician-based MI intervention was feasible and effective in enhanced and sustained patient adherence, viral suppression, and patient-physician communication and attitudes about treatment among these patients at 6 and 9 months post baseline. METHODS/DESIGN: This clinical trial seeks to extend these findings in public and private clinics in four urban population centers in Argentina, in which clinics (n = 6 clinics, six MDs per clinic site) are randomized to experimental (physician MI Intervention) (n = 3) or control (physician Standard of Care) (n = 3) conditions in a 3:3 ratio. Using a cluster randomized clinical trial design, the study will test the effectiveness of a physician-based MI intervention to improve and sustain retention, adherence, persistence, and viral suppression among "challenging" patients (n = 420) over 24 months. DISCUSSION: Results are anticipated to have significant public health implications for the implementation of MI to re-engage and retain patients in HIV treatment and care and improve viral suppression through high levels of medication adherence. TRIAL REGISTRATION:, ID: NCT02846350 . Registered on 1 July 2016.
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  5. 80
    Peer Reviewed

    Adverse Drug Reactions Among Patients Initiating Second-Line Antiretroviral Therapy in South Africa.

    Onoya D; Hirasen K; van den Berg L; Miot J; Long LC; Fox MP

    Drug Safety. 2018 Dec; 41(12):1343-1353.

    INTRODUCTION: Understanding the occurrence of antiretroviral (ARV)-related adverse events (AEs) among patients receiving second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) is important in preventing switches to more limited and expensive third-line regimens. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to estimate the rates and examine predictors of AEs among adult HIV-1-infected patients receiving second-line ART in the Right to Care (RTC) clinical cohort in South Africa. METHODS: This was a cohort study of HIV-1-infected adult patients (>/= 18 years of age) initiating standard second-line ART in South Africa from 1 April 2004 to 10 January 2016. Our primary outcome was the development of an AE within 24 months of initiating second-line therapy. We used Kaplan-Meier survival analysis to determine AE incidence in the first 24 months of second-line ART. Predictors of AEs were modelled using a Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: A total of 7708 patients initiated second-line ART, with 44.5% developing at least one AE over the first 24 months of second-line treatment. The highest AE incidence was observed among patients receiving abacavir (ABC) + lamivudine (3TC) + ritonavir-boosted lopinavir/atazanavir (LPVr/ATVr) (52.7/100 person-years (PYs), 95% confidence interval (CI): 42.9-64.8), while patients initiated on a tenofovir (TDF) + emtricitabine (FTC)/3TC + LPVr regimen had the lowest rate of AEs (26.4/100 PYs, 95% CI: 24.9-28.3). Clinical predictors of AEs included experiencing AEs when receiving first-line ART (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 2.3, 95% CI: 1.9-2.8), lower CD4 cell count (0-199 vs. >/= 350 cells/mm(3); aHR 1.4, 95% CI: 1.4-1.8), and switching to second-line therapy from an ABC-base first-line regimen (ABC + 3TC + efavirenz/nevirapine [EFV/NVP] vs. TDF + 3TC/FTC + EFV/NVP; aHR 3.4, 95% CI: 1.1-11.1). CONCLUSIONS: The rates of AEs were lowest among patients receiving a TDF-based second-line regimen. Patients with poorer health at the time of switch were at higher risk of AEs when receiving second-line ART and may require closer monitoring to improve the durability of second-line therapy.
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  6. 81
    Peer Reviewed

    Gender-specific HIV and substance abuse prevention strategies for South African men: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Rotheram-Borus MJ; Tomlinson M; Mayekiso A; Bantjes J; Harris DM; Stewart J; Weiss RE

    Trials. 2018 Aug 3; 19(1):417.

    BACKGROUND: Young men in South Africa face concurrent epidemics of HIV, drug and alcohol abuse, and unemployment. Standard HIV prevention programs, located in healthcare settings and/or using counseling models, fail to engage men. Soccer and vocational training are examined as contexts to deliver male-specific, HIV prevention programs. METHODS: Young men (n = 1200) are randomly assigned by neighborhood to one of three conditions: 1) soccer league (n = 400; eight neighborhoods); 2) soccer league plus vocational training (n = 400; eight neighborhoods); or 3) a control condition (n = 400; eight neighborhoods). Soccer practices and games occur three times per week and vocational training is delivered by Silulo Ulutho Technologies and Zenzele Training and Development. At baseline, 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months, the relative efficacy of these strategies to increase the number of significant outcomes (NSO) among 15 outcomes which occur (1) or not (0) are summed and compared using binomial logistic regressions. The summary primary outcome reflects recent HIV testing, substance abuse, employment, sexual risk, violence, arrests, and mental health status. DISCUSSION: The failure of men to utilize HIV prevention programs highlights the need for gender-specific intervention strategies. However, men in groups can provoke and encourage greater risk-taking among themselves. The current protocol evaluates a male-specific strategy to influence men's risk for HIV, as well as to improve their ability to contribute to family income and daily routines. Both interventions are expected to significantly benefit men compared with the control condition. TRIAL REGISTRATION: registration, NCT02358226 . Registered 24 November 2014.
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  7. 82
    Peer Reviewed

    Methadone Maintenance Treatment Reduces the Vulnerability of Drug Users on HIV/AIDS in Vietnamese Remote Settings: Assessing the Changes in HIV Knowledge, Perceived Risk, and Testing Uptake after a 12-Month Follow-Up.

    Nguyen TMT; Tran BX; Fleming M; Pham MD; Nguyen LT; Le HT; Nguyen ALT; Le HT; Nguyen TH; Hoang VH; Le XTT; Vuong QH; Ho MT; Dam VN; Vuong TT; Do HN; Nguyen V; Nguyen HLT; Do HP; Doan PL; Nguyen HH; Latkin CA; Ho CS; Ho RC

    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018 Nov 16; 15(11)

    Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) program has been considered a medium through which human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risks assessment and prevention on drug use/HIV-infected population can be effectively conducted. Studies concerning the implementation of such idea on patients in remote, under-developed areas, however, have been limited. Having the clinics established in three mountainous provinces of Vietnam, this study aimed to evaluate the changes in knowledge of HIV, perceived risk, and HIV testing uptake of the patients. A longitudinal study was conducted at six MMT clinics in three provinces with a pre- and post-assessments among 300 patients. Outcomes of interest were compared between baseline and after 12 months. The magnitude of changes was extrapolated. The proportion of participants reporting that their HIV knowledge was not good fell by 4.4% (61.3% at the baseline vs. 56.8% at 12 months). The significant improvement seen was in the knowledge that needle sharing was a mode of transmission (82.7% vs. 89.6%). Nevertheless, the majority of participants reportedly considered mosquitoes/insect and eating with the HIV-infected patient were the route of transmission at both time points (84.7% vs. 89.1%, 92.2% vs. 93.3%, respectively). This study found a limited improvement in HIV knowledge and testing uptake among MMT patients following a 12-month period. It also highlighted some shortcomings in the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of these patients, in particular, incorrect identification of HIV transmission routes, among patients both at program initiation and follow-up. The findings lent support to the argument for enhancing education and counseling efforts at MMT clinics regarding HIV, as well as for improving access to preventive and health care services through the integration of MMT/HIV services.
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  8. 83

    Correlates of Recent HIV Testing Among Transgender Women in Greater Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Rutledge R; Morozova O; Gibson BA; Altice FL; Kamarulzaman A; Wickersham JA

    LGBT Health. 2018 Nov/Dec; 5(8):484-493.

    PURPOSE: In Malaysia, an estimated 9.7%-12.4% of transgender women (TW) are HIV positive, with higher estimates among those engaged in sex work. According to the 90-90-90 Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS strategy, HIV testing is the first crucial step in curbing the HIV epidemic. This study examines correlates of recent HIV testing among TW in Greater Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. METHODS: TW (N = 199) in Greater Kuala Lumpur completed a survey on healthcare access and utilization, including HIV testing history. Bivariate logistic regression and penalized multivariate logistic regression were used to explore correlates of HIV testing in the last 12 months. RESULTS: Overall, 41.7% of TW reported having ever been tested for HIV. Among participants who were HIV negative or not sure of their HIV status (n = 187), only 18.7% (n = 35) had been tested for HIV in the last 12 months. The multivariate analysis indicated that having a primary care provider (PCP), being 26-40 years of age, and having higher mental health functioning were positively associated with recent HIV testing. Active amphetamine use and previous depression diagnosis were also associated with recent HIV testing. CONCLUSION: HIV testing is the first step in linking individuals to prevention and treatment interventions. Our findings suggest that having a PCP can improve engagement in HIV testing. Moreover, PCPs can serve as a valuable link to HIV treatment and prevention services. Current interventions that target social and behavioral risk factors for HIV, on their own, may be insufficient at engaging all HIV-vulnerable TW.
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  9. 84
    Peer Reviewed

    Depression and Quality of Life among Patients Living with HIV/AIDS in the Era of Universal Treatment Access in Vietnam.

    Tran BX; Dang AK; Truong NT; Ha GH; Nguyen HLT; Do HN; Nguyen TQ; Latkin CA; Ho CSH; Ho RCM

    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018 Dec 17; 15(12)

    Although antiretroviral treatment (ART) access has been universal in recent years, few studies have examined if this policy contributes to the mental health of the patients. This study assessed depression and its relations with health-related quality of life (HRQOL), which is defined as the status of general well-being, physical, emotional, and psychological, among HIV patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 482 patients at five outpatient clinics. Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and EuroQol-5 dimensions-5 levels (EQ-5D-5L) were used to assess the severity of depression and HRQOL. About one-fifth of patients reported symptoms of depression. According to the result of a multivariate logistic regression model, patients who had a lower number of CD4 cells at the start of ART, who received ART in the clinic without HIV counseling and testing (HCT) services, who had a physical health problem, and who experienced discrimination were more likely to have depression. Depression was associated with significantly decreased HRQOL. Depression is prevalent and significantly negatively associated with HRQOL of HIV/AIDS patients. We recommend screening for depression and intervening in the lives of depressed individuals with respect to those who start ART late, and we also recommend community-based behavioral change campaigns to reduce HIV discrimination.
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  10. 85

    A Feasibility RCT Evaluating a Play-Informed, Caregiver-Implemented, Home-Based Intervention to Improve the Play of Children Who Are HIV Positive.

    Ramugondo E; Ferreira A; Chung D; Cordier R

    Occupational therapy International. 2018; 2018:3652529.

    Background/aim: In South Africa, contextual factors have been identified as barriers to outdoor, unstructured play. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and resulting progressive HIV encephalopathy (PHE) is a pandemic in this area, associated with development delays that are not addressed by highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). This study aimed to describe the playfulness in children with HIV and PHE on HAART living in challenging socioeconomic areas in South Africa aged 6 months to 8 years and to evaluate the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of a play-informed, caregiver-implemented, home-based intervention (PICIHBI) for improving play. Methods: A feasibility randomized control trial allowed for comparison of PICIHBI and conventional one-on-one occupational therapy interventions. Children were filmed playing pre-, mid-, and postintervention, using the Test of Playfulness (ToP) to assess playfulness. The PICIHBI comprised of 10 monthly sessions facilitated by an occupational therapist, involving group discussions with caregivers and periods of experiential play. Results: Twenty-four children with HIV and/or PHE were randomized into one of the two intervention groups. Overall, the group (n = 24) had a median score of 0 (lowest item score) on nine of 24 ToP items and only had a median score of 3 (highest score) on two items. Pre- to postintervention overall ToP scores improved marginally for the PICIHBI group (n = 12) and the conventional group (n = 12). Between-group differences were not significant. The PICIHBI group demonstrated a significant increase in one ToP item score at midassessment. No significant ToP item changes were found in the conventional group. Conclusion: Children with HIV were found to have the most difficulty on ToP items relating to the play elements of internal control and freedom from constraints of reality. The PICIHBI did not significantly improve children's play and was not more effective than the conventional intervention. Considerations for feasibility and effectiveness, including barriers to attendance, are discussed.
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  11. 86

    Seizures in Children with HIV infection in South Africa: A retrospective case control study.

    Burman RJ; Wilmshurst JM; Gebauer S; Weise L; Walker KG; Donald KA

    Seizure. 2019 Feb; 65:159-165.

    PURPOSE: Data relating to the role that Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) contributes towards seizures in HIV-infected children is limited. The management of seizures in this group is complex due to potential interactions between antiseizure medication and antiretroviral therapies. This study explores the seizure semiology and course of a population of affected children based on questions raised from a previous epidemiological study. METHODS: A retrospective case-control study of all patients presenting to an HIV neurology clinic between 2008-2015 was conducted. A multinomial logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors for seizure occurrence in HIV-infected children, as well as factors associated with seizure control. RESULTS: Of 227 HIV-infected children (median 82 months, interquartile range 41-109), 52 (23%) reported a past or present history of seizures. Prior bacterial meningitis (p = 0.03, OR 12.5, 95% CI 1.2-136.1), cerebrovascular accident (CVA, p = 0. 005, OR 8.1, 95% CI 1.9-34.9) and or tuberculous meningitis (TBM, p = 0.0004) was associated with an increased risk of seizures in HIV-infected children. Generalised tonic-clonic seizures were the predominant seizure type (64%) with the majority caused by an infectious aetiology (62%). Thirty-two (62%) of these patients had epilepsy in-line with the latest diagnostic criteria. HIV-infected children with epilepsy who were treated with efavirenz were more likely to have poor seizure control (OR 23.1 95% CI 3.4-159.6, p = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new data highlighting the complex clinical presentation and management challenges of HIV-infected children with seizures. Copyright (c) 2019 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  12. 87

    A Study of Pap Smears in HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Women from a Tertiary Care Center in South India.

    Gupta K; Philipose CS; Rai S; Ramapuram J; Kaur G; Kini H; Gv C; Adiga D

    Acta Cytologica. 2019; 63(1):50-55.

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work was to study the spectrum of epithelial abnormalities on Pap smears of HIV-positive women categorized as per the Bethesda System of Reporting Cervical Cytology, to correlate them with CD4 lymphocyte counts, and to compare them with the spectrum of abnormalities seen in a HIV-negative control group. Study Design and Methodology: The present study was a 6-year retrospective study conducted in the Department of Pathology at Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, which included 150 Pap smears from HIV-positive and HIV-negative women, respectively. The Pap-stained slides of the cases were retrieved and studied. The data collected were tabulated and analyzed. A statistical study was performed using SPSS software. The chi2 test was used to analyze the data and a p value < 0.05 was considered to be significant. RESULTS: Pap smear abnormalities were twice as high in HIV-infected women (12%) as compared with HIV-negative women (6%; p = 0.006, RR = 2). Negative for intraepithelial lesion/malignancy was the most common finding (88%), which was further subdivided into inflammatory, atrophic smear, non-specific, candidiasis, and bacterial vaginitis groups. The percentage of epithelial abnormalities was 12%, including: atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, 5.55%; atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude HSIL, 16.66%; low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 5.55%; high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), 61.11%, and squamous cell carcinoma, 11.11%. The highest incidence of intraepithelial lesions in HIV-positive females was in the age group of 34-49 years. CD4 cell counts fell in the range of 200-500 cells/mm3 in most of the HIV-positive patients (68.75%), but was not found to be statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Routine Pap smear examination is advocated in women with HIV as the prevalence of epithelial cell abnormalities was found to be 12%, which was twice as high as compared to the HIV-negative control group. Although there was no correlation of epithelial cell abnormalities with CD4 counts, a higher rate of the cases with epithelial abnormalities were observed to have CD4 cell counts of 200-500 cells/mm3. (c) 2019 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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  13. 88

    Determination of medication adherence and related factors among people living with HIV/AIDS in a Turkish university hospital

    Ceylan E; Koc A; Inkaya AC; Unal S

    Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences. 2019 Feb 11; 49(1):198-205.

    Background/aim: Widespread use of antiretroviral treatment (ART) has led to decrease in the incidence of HIV/AIDS-related mortality. Besides the availability of ART, medication adherence is essential for treatment success. There is a scarcity of data reported from Turkey regarding ART adherence among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine medication adherence and related factors among PLWHA in Turkey. Materials and methods: The sample consisted of 158 PLWHA, who were being followed up at Infectious Diseases Outpatient Clinic of Hacettepe University Hospital. Data were collected using an individual questionnaire and the Turkish version of the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. Results: The median patient age was 38 years, 80.4% were male, and 51.3% were married. The median duration of both HIV infection and ART was 3 years. Sixty-one percent used two drug regimens. Sixty-one percent were highly adherent to ART while 37.9% were moderately adherent. The absence/presence of social support resources, disease duration, ART duration, and being informed about the ART regimen were statistically associated with medication adherence. Conclusion: Our results suggest that medication adherence is excellent among Turkish PLWHA. Interventions, including effective social support, and continuous counseling about ART, might further boost the adherence of PLWHA
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  14. 89

    Reemerging diseases in Brazil: sociodemographic and epidemiological characteristics of syphilis and its under-reporting.

    Garbin AJI; Martins RJ; Belila NM; Exaltacao SM; Garbin CAS

    Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical. 2019 Feb 21; 52:e20180226.

    INTRODUCTION: This paper analyzed sociodemographic and epidemiological data of individuals with syphilis as well as the compulsory reporting of the disease, for being a reemerging disease in Brazil. METHODS: General information and sociodemographic, epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory data were verified in compulsory reporting. RESULTS: From 2010 to 2016, 157 reporting forms were explored. Acquired and gestational syphilis occurred predominantly in those 20 to 29 years of age and those who did not complete secondary education. Compulsory reporting forms were not complete. CONCLUSIONS: The number of syphilis cases has varied over the years in the city. Incomplete compulsory reporting was noted.
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  15. 90

    Risk Factors for Congenital Syphilis Transmitted from Mother to Infant - Suzhou, China, 2011-2014.

    Wang Y; Wu M; Gong X; Zhao L; Zhao J; Zhu C; Gong C

    MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2019 Mar 15; 68(10):247-250.

    Mother-to-child transmission of syphilis remains a major global public health issue, and elimination of congenital syphilis is one of the millennium development goals of the World Health Organization (1). In 2012, an estimated 930,000 maternal syphilis infections caused 350,000 adverse pregnancy outcomes, including 143,000 early fetal deaths and stillbirths, 62,000 neonatal deaths, 44,000 preterm or low-weight births, and 102,000 infected infants worldwide (2). In China, the number of congenital syphilis cases reported annually increased from 468 in 2000 to 10,032 in 2013; the corresponding national congenital syphilis incidence rate increased nearly 26-fold, from 2.6 cases per 100,000 live births in 2000 to 69.9 in 2013 (3,4). To examine risk factors for mother-to-child transmission of syphilis, a cohort of pregnant women with a new syphilis diagnosis and their live-born infants was recruited during July 2011-July 2014 in Suzhou, in eastern China. Multivariable logistic regression results demonstrated that gestational age >36 weeks at the time of maternal syphilis diagnosis, higher maternal titers of rapid plasma reagin (RPR) and higher Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA) titers are risk factors for congenital syphilis. Among women with syphilis diagnosed at >36 weeks' gestational age, three quarters were migrant women. Recommendations for strengthening community and provider education about mother-to-child transmission of syphilis, early diagnosis and timely treatment of syphilis in pregnancy, and improving and providing access to prenatal care and screening migrant pregnant women with temporary residence status might reduce the incidence of congenital syphilis in China.
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  16. 91

    The Impact of Neighborhood Environment on Women's Willingness to Have a Second Child in China.

    Chen H; Wang X; Li Z; Zhu Z

    Inquiry. 2019 Jan-Dec; 56:46958019833232.

    In recent years, the Chinese government has changed the one-child policy that was implemented more than 3 decades ago and has began encouraging couples to have 2 children. However, this cannot quickly change people's reproductive concepts after more than 30 years of low fertility rate and birth control. In this context, the aim of our study was to assess the effect of neighborhood environment on Chinese women's fertility-willingness for a second child. Our results show that there is a statistically significant relationship between neighborhood environment and women's fertility-willingness for a second child. Women living in affluent neighborhoods with better living environments have lower fertility-willingness for a second child than those in poor neighborhoods. However, childcare institutions (such as kindergartens) provide shared childcare and improve women's fertility-willingness. We suggest that to encourage more couples to have a second child, it is necessary to increase the number of neighborhood kindergartens. In addition, local governments must improve the social welfare of migrant households and loosen the requirements for migrant households to obtain local hukou, which will allow migrant children to enjoy local public services, especially education services.
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  17. 92
    Peer Reviewed

    The Invisible Product: Preferences for Sustained-Release, Long-Acting Pre-exposure Prophylaxis to HIV Among South African Youth.

    Montgomery ET; Atujuna M; Krogstad E; Hartmann M; Ndwayana S; O'Rourke S; Bekker LG; van der Straten A; Minnis AM

    Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2019 Apr 15; 80(5):542-550.

    BACKGROUND: Long-acting injectable and implantable approaches aim to overcome some of the documented challenges with uptake and adherence to current HIV prevention methods. Youth are a key end-user population for these methods. We used qualitative methods to examine product attributes and preferences for current and future long-acting HIV prevention approaches. METHODS: Ninety-five South African youth aged 18-24 years, of whom 62 were female and 33 male, completed 50 interviews and 6 focus groups. We purposively selected for previous product experience, including oral pre-exposure prophylaxis, injectable pre-exposure prophylaxis, or the vaginal ring, to ensure participants' opinions were rooted in actual experience. RESULTS: Irrespective of previous method-use experience, gender, or sexual orientation, the majority expressed a preference for prevention methods formulated as injectables or implants. Several mentioned that their top priority in any product was efficacy, and for some, this overrode other concerns; for example, even if they feared pain, an implant or an injectable would be used if fully protective. Although efficacy was a top priority, there was also a clear desire across all subgroups for a product that would not interfere with sex, would stay in the system to provide protection, and that caused minimal burden, or was not apparent to others, and these characteristics were most salient for long-acting methods. CONCLUSIONS: Narrative explanations for preferences converged thematically around different dimensions of "invisibility" including invisibility to oneself, one's partner and household members, and community members. End-user preferences can be used to inform product development of long-acting HIV prevention approaches formulated as injections or implants to optimize adherence and impact.
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  18. 93
    Peer Reviewed

    The effects of a nutrient supplementation intervention in Ghana on parents' investments in their children.

    Adams KP; Adu-Afarwuah S; Bentil H; Oaks BM; Young RR; Vosti SA; Dewey KG

    PloS One. 2019; 14(3):e0212178.

    A child's endowment is a reflection of his/her genetic makeup and the conditions faced in early life. Parents build on their child's endowment by investing resources in their child, and together, a child's endowment and subsequent investments act as input into important later-life outcomes. A positive or negative shock to a child's endowment can have a direct biological effect on a child's long-term outcomes but may also affect parents' decisions about investments in the health and human capital of their children. Using follow-up data collected several years after a randomized trial in Ghana, we explored whether maternal and child supplementation with small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) throughout much of the first 1,000 days influenced parental investments in the health and human capital of their children. Across the domains of family planning, breastfeeding, health, education, and paternal financial support, we found that, in general, the intervention did not affect investments in the treated child nor his/her untreated siblings. These results suggest that given production technologies, constraints, and preferences, the intervention either did not change parents' optimal investment strategies or that the effects of the intervention, namely increased birth size and attained length at 18 months of age, were too small for parents to perceive or to have any meaningful impact on parents' expectations about the returns to investments in their children.
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  19. 94

    Differential effects of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate administration on vaginal microbiome in Hispanic White and Black women.

    Yang L; Hao Y; Hu J; Kelly D; Li H; Brown S; Tasker C; Roche NE; Chang TL; Pei Z

    Emerging Microbes and Infections. 2019; 8(1):197-210.

    The use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), a 3-monthly injectable hormonal contraceptive, is associated with an increased risk of HIV acquisition possibly through alteration of the vaginal microbiome. In this longitudinal interventional study, we investigated the impact of DMPA administration on the vaginal microbiome in Hispanic White and Black women at the baseline (visit 1), 1 month (visit 2), and 3 months (visit 3) following DMPA treatment by using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. No significant changes in the vaginal microbiome were observed after DMPA treatment when Hispanic White and Black women were analysed as a combined group. However, DMPA treatment enriched total vaginosis-associated bacteria (VNAB) and Prevotella at visit 2, and simplified the correlational network in the vaginal microbiome in Black women, while increasing the network size in Hispanic White women. The microbiome in Black women became more diversified and contained more VNAB than Hispanic White women after DMPA treatment. While the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio and Lactobacillus to Prevotella (L/P) ratio were comparable between Black and Hispanic White women at visit 1, both ratios were lower in Black women than in Hispanic White women at visit 2. In conclusion, DMPA treatment altered the community network and enriched VNAB in Black women but not in Hispanic White women. The Lactobacillus deficiency and enrichment of VNAB may contribute to the increased risk of HIV acquisition in Black women. Future studies on the impact of racial differences on the risk of HIV acquisition will offer insights into developing effective strategies for HIV prevention. Abbreviations: DMPA: depot medroxyprogesterone acetate; PCR: polymerase chain reaction; OTU: operational taxonomic unit; STI: sexually transmitted infections; VNAB: vaginosis-associated bacteria.
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  20. 95
    Peer Reviewed

    Etonogestrel Subdermal Implant-Associated Regression of Endometrial Intraepithelial Neoplasia.

    Wong S; Naresh A

    Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2019 Mar 11;

    BACKGROUND: Endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia is a precursor lesion to endometrial adenocarcinoma. Total hysterectomy is the preferred management, but systemic or locally acting progestin therapies are acceptable alternatives. The use of the etonogestrel subdermal implant for treatment of endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia has not been studied. CASE: A 36-year-old woman, G2P2002, with obesity presented with abnormal uterine bleeding. Her endometrial specimen demonstrated endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia. She declined both hysterectomy and conventional medical management. The etonogestrel implant was offered as an alternative to no treatment. After etonogestrel implant insertion, serial biopsies showed regression of endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia. Sixteen months after implant insertion, biopsy showed inactive and atrophic endometrium. CONCLUSION: The etonogestrel subdermal implant should be considered for further study for the treatment of endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia in women who decline surgical management.
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  21. 96
    Peer Reviewed

    Exploring barriers to reproductive, maternal, child and neonatal (RMNCH) health-seeking behaviors in Somali region, Ethiopia.

    Jalu MT; Ahmed A; Hashi A; Tekilu A

    PloS One. 2019; 14(3):e0212227.

    INTRODUCTION: Health-seeking behaviours are influenced by internal and external contributing factors. Internal factors include attitudes, beliefs and core values, life adaptation skills, psychological disposition whereas external factors include social support, media, socio-cultural, political, economic and biological aspects, health care systems, environmental stressors and societal laws and regulations. This study was meant to explore factors affecting health-seeking behaviors in the Somali regional state of Ethiopia. The study employed a cross-sectional study design using qualitative data collection tools. Data were collected from 50 individual interviews and 17 focused group discussions (FGD) on women of reproductive age and their partners, health extension workers (HEWs), health care providers and health administrators. To ensure representativeness, the region was categorized into three zones based on their settlement characteristics as agrarian, pastoralist and semi-pastoralist. Two districts (one from high and the other from low performance areas) were selected from each category. The data were entered, coded, categorized and analyzed using NVIVO version 11 software. The Socio-ecologic Model (SEM) was used for categorization. RESULTS: Using the social ecological model, the following major barriers for health seeking behaviors were identified. Low socio-demographic and economic status, poor exposure to health information or mass media, detrimental preferences of breast feeding methods and short acting family planning (FP) methods were identified barriers at the individual level; male dominance in decision making, the influence of the husband and society and the role of word of mouth were identified barriers at the interpersonal level and lack of acceptance, fear of modern health practices, unclean health facility environment, lack of well-equipped facilities shortage of trained staffs and barriers relating to distance and transportation were barriers identified at organizational and policy level. CONCLUSION: Overall, factors at various level affected health seeking behaviors of the Somali community. Socio-demographic and economic factors, non-responsive bureaucratic system, shortages or absence of medical supplies and human resources, lack of supportive supervision, a shortage of water and electricity at the health facility and an unclean service delivery environment are significant barriers to health-seeking behaviors for the community.
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  22. 97
    Peer Reviewed

    Progress in adolescent health and wellbeing: tracking 12 headline indicators for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2016.

    Azzopardi PS; Hearps SJC; Francis KL; Kennedy EC; Mokdad AH; Kassebaum NJ; Lim S; Irvine CMS; Vos T; Brown AD; Dogra S; Kinner SA; Kaoma NS; Naguib M; Reavley NJ; Requejo J; Santelli JS; Sawyer SM; Skirbekk V; Temmerman M; Tewhaiti-Smith J; Ward JL; Viner RM; Patton GC

    Lancet. 2019 Mar 8;

    BACKGROUND: Rapid demographic, epidemiological, and nutritional transitons have brought a pressing need to track progress in adolescent health. Here, we present country-level estimates of 12 headline indicators from the Lancet Commission on adolescent health and wellbeing, from 1990 to 2016. METHODS: Indicators included those of health outcomes (disability-adjusted life-years [DALYs] due to communicable, maternal, and nutritional diseases; injuries; and non-communicable diseases); health risks (tobacco smoking, binge drinking, overweight, and anaemia); and social determinants of health (adolescent fertility; completion of secondary education; not in education, employment, or training [NEET]; child marriage; and demand for contraception satisfied with modern methods). We drew data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2016, International Labour Organisation, household surveys, and the Barro-Lee education dataset. FINDINGS: From 1990 to 2016, remarkable shifts in adolescent health occurred. A decrease in disease burden in many countries has been offset by population growth in countries with the poorest adolescent health profiles. Compared with 1990, an additional 250 million adolescents were living in multi-burden countries in 2016, where they face a heavy and complex burden of disease. The rapidity of nutritional transition is evident from the 324.1 million (18%) of 1.8 billion adolescents globally who were overweight or obese in 2016, an increase of 176.9 million compared with 1990, and the 430.7 million (24%) who had anaemia in 2016, an increase of 74.2 million compared with 1990. Child marriage remains common, with an estimated 66 million women aged 20-24 years married before age 18 years. Although gender-parity in secondary school completion exists globally, prevalence of NEET remains high for young women in multi-burden countries, suggesting few opportunities to enter the workforce in these settings. INTERPRETATION: Although disease burden has fallen in many settings, demographic shifts have heightened global inequalities. Global disease burden has changed little since 1990 and the prevalence of many adolescent health risks have increased. Health, education, and legal systems have not kept pace with shifting adolescent needs and demographic changes. Gender inequity remains a powerful driver of poor adolescent health in many countries. FUNDING: Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Copyright (c) 2019 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
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  23. 98
    Peer Reviewed

    A Mixed-Methods Study Examining Adherence to and Acceptability of Intravaginal Rings for HIV Prevention: Behavioral Results of MTN-027.

    Bauermeister JA; Golinkoff JM; Carballo-Dieguez A; Giguere R; Lopez D; Hoesley CJ; Chen BA; Anderson P; Dezzutti CS; Strizki J; Sprinkle C; Heard F; Hall W; Jacobson C; Berthiaume J; Mayo A; Richardson BA; Piper J

    AIDS and Behavior. 2019 Mar 15;

    Intravaginal rings (IVR) containing antiretroviral drugs are a promising method for HIV prevention. We triangulated quantitative and qualitative assessments to evaluate the acceptability of four IVRs used continuously for 28 days as part of a Phase I trial (N = 48 HIV-negative women; ages 18-45). Adherence was high throughout the trial, yet 30% of participants reported involuntary IVR expulsions followed by re-insertion. Most participants (93.6%) felt comfortable with the IVR being inside their body. Participants reported liking the IVR more (36.2%) or the same amount (55.3%) since starting the study. When given the option of choosing between the IVR and/or a male condom for HIV-prevention, most reported preferring the IVR (n = 29, 63.0%), and over a quarter of the sample reported liking them equally (n = 12, 26.1%). We observed no differences in IVR acceptability across the study arms. High adherence and acceptability underscores the promise of an IVR as a female-controlled, sustained mechanism for HIV prevention.
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  24. 99
    Peer Reviewed

    Effect of Planned Nursing Intervention on Child Birth Education among Prinigravida Mothers Attending Antenatal Clinics at Selected Hospitals in Meerut (UP).

    John G; Banu T

    Nursing Journal of India. 2015 Sep; 106(5):210-212.

    With a view to assess the effectiveness of video-assisted teaching programme on child birth education, a pre-experimental design with one group pre-test and post-test with an evaluative approach was undertaken on 50 antenatal mothers. Prior to implementation of video- assisted teaching programme, the antenatal mothers had a poor knowledge whereas after implementation of video-assisted teaching programme, the antenatal mothers knowledge was significantly improved with the difference of mean percentage revealing effectiveness of video-assisted teaching programme. It was also found that the antenatal mothers were not aware of the importance of childbirth education.
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  25. 100
    Peer Reviewed

    The Impact of Culture on Breastfeeding Rates.

    Eidelman AI

    Breastfeeding Medicine. 2016 Jun; 11:215.

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