Factors affecting the implementation of a curriculum innovation in the Philippines: a study of the population education program.
The purpose of this study was to ascertain the experiences of school adminstrators and teachers at different stages of project implementation and to arrive at the perceptions of those personnel about changes in terms of objectives, content, and instructional strategies as prescribed at the central level of The Ministry of Education and Culture and what actually occurred at the local level. Random sampling procedures were used to gather data from 270 elementary teachers and 68 administrators from 9 districts in 1 school division. Findings were as follows. 1) Teachers and administrators reported that the Population Education Program was implemented through the administrative hierarchy of the educational system using the prescribed implementation strategy. 2) Teachers integrated population education into selected subject areas while administrators supervised the integration and participation in project working teams. 3) Overloading of teaching assignments, inadequate knowledge of subject matter, and lack of funds were some of the problems encountered by both groups of respondents. 4)In teaching the content of population education, there appeared to be lack of time for integration, topics were counter to prevailing sociocultural values in the community, and there was difficulty in integration. 5) Improvement of teaching ability was the reward for project participation, while increase of teaching load for teachers and withholding of promotion for administrators were the negative sanctions for nonparticipation. 6) Constant monitoring and supervision by school authorities was considered effective in sustaining interest in the continued implementation of the project. 7) The 3 most important elements in a sound strategy of innovation for teachers were use of directives; strong adherence to specified national goals; and maximum use of local resources. In addition, administrators added use of media and responsiveness to local needs. 8) Compared responses of teachers and administrators to questions on whether changes occurred in objectives and content revealed no significant differences. 9) Position of administrators in the educational hierarchy influenced their responses to the question on whether local project implementation was congruent with centrally-prescribed implementation. The implications of the study were: 1) that the present training scheme must be restructured to include new types of programs; 2) that resource personnel should provide more skills and content support; 3) that teachers and administrators should be involved in writing local curriculum materials; 4) that certain institutional arrangements should be altered, including attention to overload of teachers and administrators; 5) that special services should be offered to implementers of innovations; and 6) that an alternative strategy for implementation is recommended which includes initial needs assessment, reciprocal feedback, a plan for collaborative funding, and continuous formal and informal evaluation. (author's)